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PSYC 2040U

Chapter 5 Learning and BehaviourLearningan adpative process in which the tendency to perform particular behaviour is changed by experienceas conditions change we learn new behaviours and eliminate old oneslearning can only be observed through behaviour but some behaviour is not a result of learning and some learning doesnt produce a change is behaviourexperience alters chemistry of brainthese alterations affect how NS responds to subsequent eventsPerformancebehavioural change produced by internal changes brought about by learning evidence that learning has occuredfactors such as fatigue and motivation can affect behaviour so psychologists also look for specific aspects of performance such as durability and specifitythree types of learning habituation classical conditioning operant conditioning all involve cause and effect relationships with environment and behaviourlearn which stimuli are trivial and which are important learn to make adaptive responses and to avoid maladaptive ones learn to recognize conditions that reponse would be useful or if more appropriate reponse existsthese types of learning are building blocks for complex behavioursHabituationwe react automatically to events orienting responseorganism directs appropriate sensory organ toward source of novel stimulushabituationsimplest form of learning learning not to respond to an unimportant event that occurs repeatedlyGeorge Humphreyexperiment with snails got used to tapping so wouldnt retreat into shellfrom evolutionary perspectivewaste of time and energy Wicks and Rankinused worm Nemoda and subjected them to taps or heatfound that this withdrawing effect occurs through neurons that respond to mechanical stimulus regardless of stimulus could produce habituation to tapelicited stimulus but not to heatshows they learned something about tap and could distinguish it from reaction to source of heatonly had 302 neurons in NSshort term habituationsimplest form long term habituationanimals with more complex nervous systempattern of experience plays a role in distinguishing longterm and shorttermwhen sitmuli are massed into quick repetitions habituation is rapid but STwhen sitmuli are presented in small groups that are spaced over time habituation is slower but LTevidence that 2 different neural mechanisms are responsible for thisClassical Conditioninginvovled learning about conditions that predict that a significant event will occurPavlovnoticed dogs salivated when they saw research assistant come into room so he set up experiment with bell and food and dogs learned to salivate when they heard bell ringClassical Conditioningprocess by which a response normally elicitied by one stimulus UCS comes to be controlled by another stimulus CS as wellsequence and timing is importantunconditional stimulusstimulus that naturally elicits a reflexive response unconditional response behaviour itself that is naturally elicited by UCSconditional stimulusstimulus that because of repeated association with UCS eventually elicits conditional responseconditional responseresponse elicited by CRBiological Significance of Classical Conditioningtwo funcitonsability to learn to recognize stimuli that predicts occurence of an important event allows learner to make appropriate response faster and more effectivelysiamese fighting fish more likely to win fight if they were given stimulus CS that intruding male UCS would enter territoryblue gouramis more likely to mate sooner and produce more offspring when they received stimulus CS signalling approaching female UCSlearning that occurs with biologically significant UCS is more resistant to subsequent modificationsstimuli that were previously unimportant acquire some properties of important stimuli with which they have been associated and thus become able to modify behaviourneutral stimulus becomes desirable when it is associated with desirable stimulus or becomes undesirable when it is associated with undesirable stimulus specific properties of UCS become associated with CSUCS takes on symbolic valueWardRobinsondemonstrated this with pigeons where they pecked at light when sound went on paired sound CS with food UCSadaptive significance is so general that even nematode exhibits it Wenplaced worms in solution of Na or Cl with bacteria when placed with patches on ions and no bacteria worm migrated to ions thinking there was foodBasic Principles of Classical Conditioningdiscovered 7 interesting phenomena acquisition extinction spontaneous recovery stimulus generalization and discriminationAcquisitionacquisitiontime during wich CR appears and increases in frequency strength of CR is influenced by intesity of UCS and timing of CS and UCSmore intense UCS produces rapid learningmore intense UCS stronger the CR isclassical conditioning occurs fastest when CS occurs shorlty before UCS and both end at same time
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