SCIE 2010U Lecture Notes - Lecture 7: Y Chromosome, Chromosome, Guanine

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1. Science of Pop Culture
Biology I - Genetics
Characteristics of Life
All living things
1. use energy.
2. develop and grow.
3. maintain themselves.
4. have the capacity to reproduce.
5. are parts of populations that evolve.
A gene is a section of DNA that contains the instructions for building a protein.
All of an organism's genes make up its genotype.
The traits of an organism (phenotype) are influenced by its genotype
A chromosome consists of a long DNA molecule wrapped around small proteins called
histones. Genes are sections of chromosomes.
Most cells have two of each kind of chromosome. These cells are diploid, and their
matched chromosomes are called homologous chromosomes.
Sperm and eggs contain only one of each kind of chromosome. They are haploid.
Most cells have two of each kind of chromosome. These cells are diploid, and their
matched chromosomes are called homologous chromosomes.
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Document Summary

All living things: use energy, develop and grow, maintain themselves, have the capacity to reproduce, are parts of populations that evolve. A gene is a section of dna that contains the instructions for building a protein. All of an organism"s genes make up its genotype. The traits of an organism (phenotype) are influenced by its genotype. A chromosome consists of a long dna molecule wrapped around small proteins called histones. Most cells have two of each kind of chromosome. These cells are diploid, and their matched chromosomes are called homologous chromosomes. Sperm and eggs contain only one of each kind of chromosome. One pair the sex chromosomes determines the sex of the person. Males have one x and one y chromosome. A molecule of dna consists of two strands and looks like a spiraling ladder. The rungs of the double helix are a series of paired nitrogenous bases. Four nitrogenous bases are used in dna and they are called nucleotides:

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