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Lecture 4

ADM1301B society week 4 civil society.docx

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University of Ottawa
David Delcorde

Lecture 4- The civil Society Segment Least intuitive, can be complicated. Key Terms - Community - - Reciprocity-based value system – you do something for me, I do smth for you - Trust & collaboration - Social arrangements - Social capital – very important for us - Civic engagement Civil Society – Social Segment: the community, volunteer sector, civic sector, civil society Going back to boulding. You want to be a good manager you need to be a good part of society. What is “civil society”? - Also referred to as the “third segment” – lots of different names it goes by: o Nonprofit o Not-for-profit o Voluntary o Independent o “community” - The totality of voluntary civic and social organizations and institutions - The best definition of civil society. Suggests you need to be an org but you don’t “community” - “locality” and “common interests” - Shared characteristics, values, interests, goals that provokes a sense of belonging: o Closeness o Warmth o Protection o Engagement - How many of you perceive that you are a part of a community of any kind? “communities” - Can be occupational (physicians, accountants) - Can occur within organizations: o Professors o Accountants, auditors, HR “community” finance “community” , sr mgmt. “community - Can be based on o Skills, gender, age, ethnicity or some combination of these o Or other things that you can describe Civil Society (social Segment) – who is included? More detail in textbook - The community, but also orgs that do the civic functions that we see. o United way, foundation, imagine Canada, kids help phone, Caledon institute, planned parenthood, sun youth, charities What characterizes the segment? / how does it work? - Activities mainly instituted through forms of reciprocal relationships or solidarity – solidarity: working together toward a common goal - Based on “good neighborliness” and social trust - Its value system is reciprocity-based: o Engagement, commitment, trust, obligation, cooperation, collaboration o The value-based system that is found here. Not that it doesn’t exist in gov’t, it does, but not to the extent that it does in this segment. o Overall characteristics: - Relative to the economic and political segments – how is this different from business/ gov’t. o Smaller, more cooperative, less hierarchical orgs - you don’t need an large org to do the job of this segment. Two people could actually be civil society. o Large number or women relative to men – o Less emphasis on private accumulation and minimizing cost, more emphasis on public goods and maximizing participation – business is about profit-maximization vs public goods, which is the gov’t job – the provision of public goods. They are inbetween being a business and not spending any money. The gov’t is out there doing thigns for people that is in the best interest of society. The business is trying to maximizing shareholders. Civil society is somewhere in between. o Activities are more labor intensive – volunteer efforts perhaps more labor intensive than sitting in front of a computer o Importance is placed on gratitude, obligation, generalized reciprocity and symbols - The Contemporary civil society segment - How has the idea of civil society changed over the last ten years? - Was there one teacher that you remember in highschool who really made a difference somehow in your life? o When you drive into a small (old) town, what is the best building in the whole town? The church. The church would have been the centre of all social activity: baptism, marriage, burial, and everything in between: the local politician would speak there, you could have parties and gatherings there. o What does technology do to community? Do you feel that you are as much a community online as you are face to face? In person – more personal/emotial connection; online –useful for specific interests/ specialized subject areas o What about when you have a serious issue? Does social media replace a hug from a loved one? - New features: o Involved communities o NGOs ./ Interest Groups / Associations that are “issue-oriented” o Knowledge groups / Institutes / Think Tanks  Civic entrepreneurs linking community and economic development The dynamics of the civil society segment - totally different from other two sectors Economic/ political - social - business: supply & demand - kicks in when the other 2 fail - political: coercion & redistribution - evolving to active networks (taxes/,money), we elected them to do what - not about coercion/redistribution/supply& they are doing for the citizens demand - - does something that the other 2 can’t In the economic segment, emerging issues are translated into opportunities for profit – in the social segment, the art of associating, rooted in civil the sorting mechanisms are supply and society provides the third demand in the context of competition sorting mechanism – and kicks in generally when the other two fail. in the political segment, the gov’t must learn The third sector is a set of social from the values and views of its citizens arrangements that are continually following which the sorting mechanism is evolving into active networks of redistribution and coercion non-market and non-state 2 Social Capital – Some perspectives - Social capital is generally defined as the relationships, networks & norms that facilitate collective action - Social capital directs attention to the relationships that shape the realization of human capital’s potential for the individual and collectivity - Social capital is defined as norms, networks and other related forms of social connection - The central idea of social capital is that networks and the associated norms of reciprocity have value - Producer and user of social capital Social Capital VS Human Capital Social capital is not human capital. The differences can be expressed as follows: Human Capital Social Capital Focus Individual Agent/ person Relationships Measures Duration of Schooling qualifications, did you Attitudes/ Values spend 30 years accumulating degrees, do you Membership / participation / trust have 3 designations Outcomes Direct: income, productivity Social cohesion, economic achievement, more Indirect: health, civic activity social capital . Success spills into community – you can Can you measure this? measure human capital Some simple forms of social Capital (Putman) - Highly formal forms: o Parent-teacher association, a national org of any sort, a labour union (where each is formally organized with a chairperson, a president and membership dues - Highly informal forms: o A group of ppl gathering at a bar every Thursday evening o Share ideas, go to same place, talk about same things… networking - Densely interlaced or comparatively invisible o A group of steelworkers who work together every day at the factory, go bowling together on Saturday, and the same church every Sunday Informal or formal o vs. the nodding acquaintance you have with the person you occasionally see waiting in line at the supermarket it’s still a network but not the kind you think of – almost invisible Five Roles of Civil Society - Monitoring through which policy is kept “honest” – civil society does a huge service to society through monitoring what is going on – actions of companies, policy initiatives, gov’t etc. if it is bad it will get out there through technology/social media, enabling effect of technology - Advocacy through which policy options can be supported or not supported – business and gov’t maybe don’t trust each other because they have different stakeholders. If civil society (the neutral broker) were not affected by political policy, were not supply and demand oriented, they are the neutral broker between business & govt, so if they lobby for something people believe them. A lobby group is only supporting the ideals of a certain group, so we trust civil society - Innovator through which different ways of doing things are developed and demonstrated – you might envision a tiny startup, but people are the things/inputs that make civil society work. Talented engineers who work for Microsoft or whoever might also volunteer their time to civil society - Service provider through which a particular need is fulfilled – civil society can provide services on behalf of business & the gov’t - Capacity builder through which support is provided to other civil society orgs The Civil Society Segment - likely contributions - Alternative service delivery models based on inter-sectoral partnerships – civil society orgs are more trusted to deliver models 3 - Employment generation and recognition – generates spin-off effects - Valuing and conceptualizing the importance of community - Civic engagement Has technology contributed to humanitarianism? - Tedtalk – humanitarianism - Earthquake in Haiti – gamechanger – disaster response in a hyper-connected world. The aid effort was shaped by social media and SMS. openstreetmap – allows everyone to participate in aid efforts. Entrepreneurs sprung up
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