1) Epicurus and Epictitus meaning of life?
They are both self-interest. Epicurus only needs friends, money enough for basic
needs and freedom. Epictitus needs self-interest on the basis of something. He needs
to stand for something such as an army.
2) John Mill vs Bentham
Bentham is the father of utilitarian. He says that Utilitarian should be to give the
greatest good for the greatest amount of people including animals. John Mill agree
with his utilitarian point of view but argues that animals should not be included
because animal has only basic pleasure and human intellectual pleasure is better
quality. Also, human has dignity.
3) What is Robert Loundon’s argument vs virtue ethics? (Name 3)
He says that virtue is flawed because what some might consider a good virtue, other
can consider it bad since virtue has no standard of what is good and what is wrong,
it is judged by the experience of the person and what he learns in life. Therefore
relativity in culture might deem that some culture virtual is wrong and some is
right? Obeying authority, bystander effect, asche experiment.
Virtue can’t determine what is right or wrong in the short term, it can only tell you
after long-term experience. If you made a mistake, you won’t know you made it until
you learn from it.
4) Kant’s why humans are moral beings
Humans have two things that make us moral beings: the freedom to choose and
reasoning (Right vs wrong)
5) William Summers arguments/definitions? 5 arguments/definition of moral
Morals is a development of how a particular function chooses to function
There is no universal standard of morality (right or wrong)
There’s judgment on other culture and there is a question of action
6) Socrates vs Students (myth of gyges)
His two students claims that evil is good because most people would choose to be
evil man but looks good than good man that looks evil. People look up to rich man
that are evil than poor man that is good. Only frightened and weak people choose
the just life (if you can rob a bank and be rich, do it. You’re just scared to do it and
therefore won’t live a good life).
Socrates argue: If a person had an invisible ring then they would do bad things so
morality doesn’t e