—> Panel research involves collecting information from a group of consumers (the
panel) over time (e.g., survey, record of purchases).
—> Experimental research is best for gathering causal information—cause-and-effect
—> A type of research that systematically manipulates one or more variables to
determine which variable (s) have a causal effect on another variable.
e.g, Data can be collected from many different sources, including both secondary and
primary sources. All of the following about primary data sources is true EXCEPT:
A) It is data that has been collected prior to the start of the project.
B) It is data that addresses speciﬁc research needs.
C) It can be expensive to gather & time consuming.
D) It includes focus groups.
e.g, A type of quantitative research that uses data obtained from readings of UPC
codes at checkout counters is referred to as:
A) Panel data B) Syndicated data C) Scanner data D) Primary data
e.g, The following represents a key advantage of using social media in research :
A) Conversations are observed only B) No consent to study data
C) One has access to a large potential sample D) Anonymity
Chapter 9: Product, Branding, and Packaging Decisions
product = an offer (good or service) made to a marketplace to satisfy a need or want.
—> Broadly deﬁned, “products” also include: ideas, events, people, places,
organizations, or mixes of these.
Consumer products = products and services for personal consumption
—> Classiﬁed by how consumers buy them (e.g, convenience, shopping, specialty,
a. Convenience products = consumer products and services that the customer usually
buys frequently, immediately, and with a minimum comparison and buying effort.
(Inexpensive item, Impulse goods, Require wide distribution e.g., newspapers, candy, &
b. Shopping products = consumer products and services that the customer compares
carefully on suitability, quality, price, and style (e.g., furniture, cars, and appliances)
c. Specialty products = consumer products and services with unique characteristics or
brand identiﬁcation for which a signiﬁcant group of buyers is willing to make a special
purchase effort (e.g., Medical services, Designer clothes, Rolex watches) d. Unsought products = consumer products that the consumer does not know about or
knows about but does not normally think of buying (e.g., life insurance, funeral services,
—> The product mix reﬂects the breadth & depth of a company’s product lines
(Number of product lines (breadth) & Number of products within a product line (depth))
Product mix and product line decisions:———>
Change product mix breadth: Increase or
Decrease Breadth (adding or deleting entire
Change product line depth: Increase or decrease
Depth (adding or deleting products within a li