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Ch1-4 OB.pdf

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University of Ottawa
Suren Phansalker

Chapter  1  Organizational  Behavior  and  management     What  are  organizations?   • Social  inventions  for  accomplishing  common  goals  through  group  effort   • What  are  the  3  important  elements  of  this  definition?   1. Social  intervention   2. Goal  accomplishment  (survival  or   growth)   3. Group  effort   Goals  of  OB:   • Predicting  organizational  behavior  and  events.   • Explaining  OB  and  events  in  organizations.   (Which  is  more  difficult?)   • Managing  organizational  behavior.     rd ^The  first  2  are  about  analysis,  the  3  one  is  about  action.       Contemporary  Management-­‐  The  contingency  approach   • The  general  answer  to  many  of  the  problems  in  organizations  is:  “it  depends”   • Dependencies  are  called  contingencies.   • The  contingency  approach  to  management  recognizes  that  there  is  no  one  best  way  to  manage.   • An  appropriate       Some  contemporary  management  concerns   • 5  issues  with  which  organizations  and  managers  are  currently  concerned:   o Diversity-­‐  Local  and  Global   o Employee-­‐  Organization  Relationships   o A  focus  on  quality,  speed,  and  flexibility   o Talent  management   o Corporate  social  responsibility     Chapter  2.Personality  and  learning     Personality:   • The  relatively  stable  set  of  psychological  characteristics  that  influences  the  way  an  individual  interacts  with  his   or  her  environment  and  how  he  or  she  feels,  thinks,  and  be haves  these  don  not  change  much  with  sometimes   the  exception  trauma  or  effort  made  by  the  individual   • People  have  a  variety  of  personality  characteristics   Mood  and  emotion  are  not  part  of  personality.   The  role  of  personality  in  OB  has  often  been  debated  in   what  is  known  as  the  “person -­‐situation  debate”   • This  has  led  to  3  approaches   o Dispositional  approach   o Situational  approach   o Interactionism  approach   Situations  can  be  weak  or  strong   • In  weak,  roles  are  loosely  defined;  there  are  few  rules  and  weak  reinforcement   and  punishment  contingencies.   • Personality  has  the  strongest  effect  in  weak  situations.   • In  strong,  the  roles,  rules,  and  contingencies  are  more  defined.   • Personality  has  less  of  an  impact  in  strong  situations.   The  5-­‐factor  model  of  personality,  the  5  basic   but  general  dimensions:   1. Extraversion:  outgoing,  like  a  large  crowd   2. Emotional  stability:    fearful,  self  conscious   3. Agreeableness:  trusting,  sympathetic   4. Conscientiousness:  hard  working,  reliable,  organized   5. Openness  to  experience:  active  imagination,  intellectual  curiosity     • Each  of  the  big  5  dimensions  is  related  to  job  performance.   • Best  predictors  of  job  performance  depend  on  the  occupation.   • Conscientiousness  is  the  strongest  predictor  of  overall  job  performance  across  all  occupations.   • Task  performance:  C,  E,  A   • Organizational  citizenship  behavior:  C   • Counterproductive  work  behavior:  C   • Training  proficiency:  O,  E,  C     Locus  of  Control   • A  set  of  believes  about  whether  one’s  behavior  is  controlled  mainly  by  internal  or  external  factors.   • Belief  about  what  causes  experi ences  in  life   • Internals  believe  that  the  opportunity  to  control  their  own  behavior  resides  within  themselves.   • Externals  believe  that  external  forces  determine  their  behavior.   Internals  are  more  satisfied  with  their  jobs,  earn  more  money,  and  achieve  higher  organizational  positions.   Internals  perceive  less  stress,  cope  with  stress  better,  and  engage  in  more  careful  career  planning.     Self-­‐Monitoring   • The  extent  to  which  people   observe  and  regulate  how  they  appear  and  behave  in   social  settings  and   relationships.   • High  self-­‐monitors  take  great  care  to  observe  and  control  the  images  that  they  project.   • Low  self  monitors  are  said  to  “wear  their  hearts  on  the  sleeves”  (act  how  they  feel)   • High  self-­‐monitors  are  more  involved  in  their  jobs,  perform  bet ter,  and  are  more  likely  to  emerge  as  leaders.   • High  S-­‐M  are  likely  to  experience  more  role  stress  and  show  less  commitment  to  their  anization. • High  S-­‐M  are  more  likely  to  change  employers  and  locations  and  to  receive  more    otions. • Dealing  with  unfamiliar  cultures  might  provoke  stress.     Self-­‐Esteem:   • The  degree  to  which  a  person  has  a   positive  self-­‐  evaluation.   • People  with  high  self-­‐esteem  have  favorable  self -­‐images.   • With  low  self-­‐  esteem  have  unfavorable  self -­‐images.   • People  with  low  self-­‐esteem  tend  to  be  more  susceptible  to  external  and  social  influences  than  those  who   have  high.   • Events  and  people  in  organizations  have  more  impact  on  the  believes  and  actions  of  employees  with  low.   • Employees  with  low  react  badly  to  negative  feedback,  it  lowers  subsequen t  performance.     Recent  developments  in  personality  and  OB   • Positive  affectivity   • Negative   • Proactive  personality   • General  self-­‐efficacy     People  with  higher  PA  report  higher  job  satisfaction;  they  have  higher  performance  and  are  more  creative  at  work.   Vice  versa.     Self-­‐  efficacy:   • Individuals  with  higher  GSE  are  better  able  to  adapt  to  uncertain  situations.   • Employees  with  higher  GSE  have  higher  job  satisfaction  and  job  performance.     What  is  learning?   • A  relatively  permanent  change  in  behavior  potential  as  a  result  of  proactive  or  experience.   • The  proactive  or  experience  that  prompts  learning  stems  from  an  environment  that  provides  feedback.     What  do  employees  learn?   • Practical  skills   o Job  specific  skills,  knowledge  technical  competence.   • Intrapersonal  skills   o Problem  solving,  critical  thinking,  alternative  work  processes,  risk  taking.   • Interpersonal  skills   o Interactive  skills  such  as  communicating,  teamwork,  conflict  resolution.   • Cultural  awareness   o The  social  norms  of  organizations,  company  goals,  business  operations,  expec tations,  and  priorities.     Increasing  the  probability  of  behavior:   • One  of  the  most  important  consequences  that  influences  behavior  is  reinforcement.   • Reinforcement  is  the  process  by  which  stimuli  strengthen  behaviors.   • Positive  reinforcement:  the  application  or  addition  of  a  stimulus  that  increase  or  maintains  the  probability   of  some  behaviors  (adding  a  stimulus  to  increase  the  probability  of  a  behavior;  pleasant ))   • Negative  reinforcement :  the  removal  of  a  stimulus  that  in  turn  increases  or  maintains  the  probab ility  of   some  behaviors  (removing  a  stimulus  to  increase  the  probability  of  a  behavior;  unpleasant )   • A  reinforce  is  a  stimulus  that  follows  some  behavior  and  increases  or  maintains  the  probability  of  that   behavior.   Decreasing  the  probability  of  behavior:     • Extinction  (passive  approach):  the  gradual  dissipation  of  behavior  following  the  termination  of  reinforcement.   • Punishment  (activities  approach):  the  application  of  an  aversive  stimulus  following  some  behaviors   Organizational  errors  involving  reinforcement   • Rewards  fail  to  serve  as   rein  forcers  when  they  are  not  made  contingent  on  some  specific  desired  behavior.   • Organizations  often  fail  to  appreciate  individual  differences  in  preferences  for   reinforces.   • Managers  often  neglect  important  sources  of  reinforcemen t  such  as  those  administered  by  co-­‐workers  or   intrinsic  to  the  job.   • 2  important  sources  of  reinforcement  that  managers  often  ignore  are  performance  feedback  and  social   recognition.       Chapter  3.  Perception,  Attribution,  and  diversity.   Perception:   • Process  of  interpreting  the  messages  of  out  senses  to  provide  order  and  meaning  to  the  environment.   • People  base  their  actions  on  the  interpretation  of  reality  that  they  see.   3  common  perceptual  tendencies   • Selectivity:  Perceivers  do  not  use  all  of  the  available  cues,  and  those  they  use  are  given  special  emphasis.   • The  tendency  for  the  target  to  be  perceived  in  the  same  way  over  time  and  across  situations.   • The  tendency  to  select,  ignore,  and  distort  cues  so  that  they  fit  together  to  form  a  homogenous  picture  of  the   target.     Basic  biases  in  person  perception   Primacy  and  Recency  effects:   • Primacy  often  has  a  lasting  impact.   Reliance  on  central  traits:   • People  tend  to  organize  their  perceptions  around  central  traits.   • Central  traits  are  personal  characteristics  of  a  target   person  that  are  of  particular  interest  to  a  perceiver.   • Physical  appearance  is  a  common  central  trait  in  work  settings.   • Conventionally  attractive  people  fare  better  that  unattractive  people  in  terms  of  a  variety  of  jobs.   Implicit  personality  theories:   • Personal  theories  that  people  have  about  which  personality  characteristics  go  together.   • Perhaps  you  expect  hardworking  people  to  also  be  honest,  or  people  of  average  intelligence  to  be  most   friendly.   Projection:   • The  tendency  for  perceivers  to  attribute  their  ow n  thoughts  and  feelings  to  others   • In  some  cases,  projection  is  an  efficient  and  sensible  perceptual  strategy   Stereotyping:   • The  tendency  to  generalize  about  people  in  a  social  category  and  ignore  variations  among  them.   • Race,  age,  gender,  ethnic  background,   social  class,  and  occupation.   • 3  aspects:   o We  distinguish  some  category  of  people  
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