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Chapter 5-8 OB.pdf

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Suren Phansalker

Chapter  5:   a. McClelland's  theory  of  Needs  -­‐  Motivated  to  satisfy  our  needs.  Also  needs  are  specified.  Is  not  a   hierarchy,  needs  he  specify  has  a  trait  for  each  person.     • Need  for  achievement  -­‐  Want  to  perform  tasks  well  (entrepreneur,  sales)   • Need  for  power  -­‐  Want  to  control  and  influence  others  (politics)   • Need  for  affiliation  -­‐  Want  to  establish/maintain  good  interpersonal  relationships  (Public   relations  and  social  network)     b. Maslow's  Hierarchy  of  need's  -­‐  Sets  of  needs  humans  need  to  satisfy   • Physiological  Needs  –  Basic  needs  for  survival   • Safety  Needs  –  Working  conditions,  equipment  etc.   • Belongingness  Needs  –  Social  interaction,  affection  etc.   • Self-­‐Esteem  Needs  –  How  people  view  themselves     • Self-­‐Actualization  Needs  –  Need  to  do  better  than  what  you’re  capable  of   c. Alderfer’s  ERG  Theory  –  However,  it  is  not  a  rigid  hierarchy.  The  lower  level  need  can  be  a   motivating  need  again.  Three  level  hierarchical  need  theory  of  motivation     • Existence  –  Physiological  and  Social  needs:     • Relatedness  –  Social  needs   • Growth  –  Self-­‐esteem/self-­‐actualization   RESEARCH  SUPPORT  FOR  NEED  THEORIES:   • Frustration  of  relatedness  needs  increases  the  strength  of  existence  needs   • The  simplicity  and  flexibility  of  ERG  theory  seem  to  capture  the  human  need  structure  better   than  the  greater  complexity  and  rigidity  of  Maslow’s  theory   • Research  on  McClelland’s  need  theory  is  generally  supportive  of  the  idea  that  particular  needs   are  motivational  when  the  work  setting  permits  the  satisfaction  of  these  needs   PROCESS  THEORIES:  How  are  people  motivated?”  Three  important  process  theories:   1. Expectancy  theory  -­‐  motivation  is  determined  by  outcomes  that  you  expect  to  get  from  a   task/work  that  you  do.   Components:   • Outcome:  consequences  that  follow  work  behavior.     • 1st  level  outcomes  –  primary  interest  to  the   organization   • 2nd  level  outcomes  –  interest  to  the  pstson   nd • Instrumentality:  The  probability  of  achieving  1  level  outcome,  will  bring  you  to  2  level   outcome     • Expectancy:  Loses  all  motivation  if  you  can't  believe  that  you  can  achieve  it.     • Valence:  the  expected  value  of  work  outcomes;  the  extent  to  which  they  are  attractive   or  unattractive   • Force:  the  effort  directed  towards  a  first -­‐level  outcome.       Managerial  implications  of  expectancy  theory     • One  of  the  most  basic  things  managers  can  do  is  ensure  that  their  employees  expect  to   be  able  to  achieve  first -­‐level  outcomes     • First-­‐level  outcomes  should  be  clearly  instrumental  in  obtaining  positive  second -­‐level   outcomes  and  avoiding  negative  outcomes   • Managers  should  analyze  the  diverse  preferences  of  employees  and  at tempt  to  design   individualized  'motivational  packages'  to  meet  their  needs   2. Equity  theory     a. Employees  want  to  be  treated  fairly   • Equity:  my  outcomes/my  inputs  =  other's  outcomes/  other  inputs   • Inequity:   o Under  compensations:  strong  reaction.  My  outcomes/my   inputs  <  other's   outcomes/  other  inputs   o Overcompensations:  rationalize,  no  reaction.  My  outcomes/my  inputs  >  other's   outcomes/  other  inputs   b. Managerial  implications  of  equity  theory   • Negative  motivational  consequences  of  perceived  under -­‐compensations   o Absenteeism,  turnover,  dissatisfaction,  theft..     • Understand  that  equity  is  a  perception   o Seek  to  understand  who  is  comparison  other,  and  what  is  being  compared   • Comparison  'other'  may  be  outside  the  organizations     o Be  aware  of  competitors'  compensation  polici es   3. Goal  setting  theory:  employees  need  goals   a. Goals  are  most  motivational  when  they  are   • Specific   • Challenging:  Don't  want  it  too  challenging,  don't  want  employees  to  think  that  it  is   impossible     • More  committed  if  they  help  set  the  goals     • Those  for  which  employees  receive  accurate  and  timely  feedback  on  their  progression       b. Managerial  implications  of  goal  setting   • Break  up  larger  and  ambiguous  individual  organizational  goals  into  smaller  specific  ones   • When  there  is  distrust  between  employees  and  managers  used  participative  goal  setting   rather  than  imposed  goals     • Provide  accurate  feedback     • Management  by  objectives  (MBO)     o Organizational  program  aimed  at  facilitating  goal  establishment,  goal   accomplishment,  and  employees  development   o Translate  organizational  goals  into  specific  behavioral  objectives  for  employees   Chapter  6:     The  job  characteristics  model     • Skill  variety:  the  opportunity  to  do  a  variety  of  job  activities  using  various  skills  and  talents   • Autonomy:  the  responsibility  for  the  outcome  of  the  work;  the  freedom  to  schedule  one's  own   work  activities  and  decide  work  procedures   • Task  significance:  the  impact  that  a  job  has  on  other  people   • Task  Identity:  the  extent  to  which  a  job  involves  doing  a  complete  piece  of  work,  from  beginning   to  end   • Feedback:  information  about  the  effectiveness  of  one's  performance   • Increase  the  core  job  characteristics  increases  the  critical  psychological  states   • Be  aware  of  the  moderators:     o Not  everyone  has  the  sam e  need  to  grow  in  their  work         Job  enrichment     • Design  of  jobs  to  enhance:  Intrinsic  motivation;  Quality  of  work  life;  And  job  involvement     • Strategies   o Combining  tasks:  increases  variety  of  skill;  assigning  tasks  that  might  be  performed  by   different  workers  to  one  individual   o Establishing  external  client  relationships :  involves  putting  employees  in  touch  with  people   outside  the  organization  who  depend  on  their  products  or  services   o Establishing  internal  client  relationships :  putting  employees  in  touch  with  people  who   depend  on  their  products  and  services  within  the  organization   o Reducing  supervision  or  reliance  on  others :  increases  the  autonomy  or  control  one  has  over   their  own  work     o Forming  work  teams:  work/  task  variety,  can  share  work  tasks  teams  can  be  forme d  when  a   product  or  service  is  too  large  or  complex  for  one  person  to  complete  alone  or  to  complete   an  entire  product   o Increasing  direct  feedback:  If  you  get  feedback,  you  feel  like  your  job  is  actually  doing   something.       Potential  problems  with  job  enrichm ent   • Problems  can  occur  when  is  it  instituted  without  a  careful  diagnosis  of  the  needs  of  the   organization  and  particular  hobs  in  question   • Beware  of  job  enlargement!     • Job  enrichment  can  encounter  a  number  of  challenging  problems:     o Poor  diagnosis   o Lack  of  desire  or  skill   o Demand  for  rewards   o Union  resistance   o Supervisory  resistance     Management  by  Objectives  (MBO)     • An  elaborate,  systematic,  ongoing  program  designed  to  facilitate  goal  establishment,  goal   accomplishment,  and  employee  development   • The  MBO  process  involves  manager-­‐employee  interactions:   o The  manager  meets  with  individual  workers  to  develop  and  agree  on  employee  objectives   which  can  include  job  performance  and  personal  development  objectives.   o There  are  periodic  meetings  to  monitor  employee  progress  in  achieving  objectives.   o An  appraisal  meeting  is  held  to  evaluate  the  extent  to  which  the  agreed  objectives  have   been  achieved.   o The  MBO  cycle  is  repeated.                                                       Chapter  7:   Stages  of  group  development :         • Forming:  Group  members  try  to  orient  themselves  by  'testing  the  waters'   o The  situation  is  often  ambiguous,  and  members  are  aware  of  their  dependency  on  each   other   • Storming:  Conflict  often  emerges  at  this  stage   o Confrontation  and  criticism  occur  as  members  determine  whether  they  will  go   along  with   the  way  the  group  is  developing   • Norming:  members  resolve  the  issues  that  provoked  the  storming,  and  they  develop  social   consensus.     o Norms  are  agreed  on  and  the  group  becomes  more  cohesive   • Performing:  The  group  devotes  its  energies  toward  task  accomplishment   o Achievement,  creativity,  and  mutual  assistance  are  prominent  themes  at  this  stage   • Adjourning:  rites  and  rituals  that  affirm  the  group's  previous  successful  development  are  common   o Members  often  exhibit  emotional  support  for  each  other   Group  Cohesiveness   • A  critical  property  of  groups   • The  degree  to  which  a  group  member  is  especially  attractive  to  its  members   • Members  want  to  stay  in  the  group  and  they  describe  the  group  in  avourable  terms • Cohesiveness  is  a  relative,  rather  than  absolute,  property  of  groups     • Factors  influencing  cohesiveness     o Threats  and  competition   • External  threat  to  the  survival  of  the  group  increases  cohesiveness   • Honest  competition  with  another  group  can  also  promote  cohes iveness   • The  group  becomes  more  cohesive  because  it  improved  communication  and   coordination   o Success:   • Groups  become  more  cohesive  when  they  successfully  accomplish  some  important   goal   • Cohesiveness  will  decrease  after  failure   o Member  diversity     • Groups  that  are  more  diverse  can  have  a  harder  time  becoming  cohesive   • If  there  is  agreement  about  how  to  accomplish  a  task,  its  success  will  often  outweigh   surface  dissimilarity  in  determining  cohesiveness   o Size   • Larger  groups  have  a  more  difficult  time  becoming  and  stayin g  cohesive   • Large  groups  have  a  more  difficult  time  agreeing  on  goals  and  more  problems   communication  and  coordinating  efforts  to  achieve  goals   o Toughness  of  initiation   • Groups  that  are  tough  to  get  into  tend  to  be  more  attractive  than  those  that  are  easy   to  join     • Consequences  of  cohesiveness   o More  participation  in  group  activities   • There  is  more  participation  in  cohesive  groups  in  terms  of  lower  voluntary  turnover   and  absenteeism,  and  greater  communication   o More  conformity     • High  cohesive  groups  are  about  to   induce  greater  conformity  to  group  norms   • Members  of  cohesive  groups  are  especially  motivated  to  engage  in  activities  that  keep   the  group  cohesive   • Can  apply  pressure  to  deviants  to  get  them  to  comply  with  group  norms   o More  success     • Cohesi
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