Chapter 8 - Lecture 11
Explicit- knowledge that is easily communicated
Tacit- knowledge that is learned through experience
Which is more important?
- Up to 90% of the knowledge contained i organizations occurs in tacit form.
Characteristics of Explicit and Tacit Knowledge
- We learn by observing the link between our voluntary behaviour and the consequences that
follow it Contingencies of Reinforcement
Used to increase desired behaviours:
1. Positive Reinforcement- a positive outcome follows a desired behaviour
2. Negative Reinforcement- an unwanted outcome is removed following a desired behaviour
3. Punishment- an unwanted outcome follows an unwanted behaviour
4. Extinction- the removal of a positive consequence following an unwanted behaviour
Schedules of Reinforcement
Continuous Reinforcement- a speciﬁc consequence follows each and every occurrence of a
Fixed Ratio Schedules- after a certain number of desired behaviours
Variable Ratio Schedules- after a varying number of desired behaviours
Fixed Interval Schedule- a speciﬁc consequence occurs after a ﬁxed certain amount of time
Variable Interval Schedule- at random points in time
“Can you match the schedule with the reinforcement?” Decision Making
Rational Decision Making vs. Bounded Rationality
Mistakes We Make
- Faulty attributions
- Faulty perceptions
Escalation of commitment
- How we explain the actions and events that occur around us
- When people witness a behaviour, they make a judgement about whether it was internally or
John and Jane are both late for work… why?
- John has arrived for work late before, his co-workers arrived on time and he arrives late for
other commitments as well.
- Jane has never come to work late before, her co-workers arrived late as well, and she is never
late for other commitments.