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Magda Donia

Final Exam Review Organizational Behaviour ADM 2336 E Organizational behaviour: the field of study devoted to understanding, explaining, and ultimately improving the attitudes and behaviours of individuals and groups in organizations. HR management: the field of study that focuses on the applications of OB theories and principles in organizations. Strategic management: the field of study devoted to exploring the product choices and industry characteristics that affect an organization’s profitability. Scientific management: the work of Frederick Taylor; using scientific methods to design optima; and efficient work processes and tasks. Frederick Taylor & Max Weber: classical management scholars; put heavy emphasis on specialization, coordination, and efficiency. Bureaucracy: the work of Max Weber; an organizational form that emphasizes the control and coordination of its members through a strict chain of command, formal rules and procedures, high specialization, and centralized decision making. HR movement: the field of study that recognizes that the psychological attributes of individual workers and the social forces within work groups have important effects on work behaviours. Rule of one-eighth: the belief that at best 12% of organizations will actually do what’s required to build profits by putting people first. Resource-based view: rare and inimitable resources help firms maintain competitive advantage; good workers are rare and inimitable. Job performance: employee behaviours that contribute either positively or negatively to the accomplishment of organizational goals. Task performance: employee behaviours that are directly involved in the transformation of organizational resources into the goods or services that the organization produces. Routine task performance: well-known or habitual responses by employees to predictable task demands. Adaptive task performance: thoughtful responses by an employee to unique or unusual task demands. Creative task performance: ideals or physical outcomes that are both novel and useful. Job analysis: a process by which an organization determines requirements of a specific job; list of activities; rating of activities by “subject matter experts”; activities that are rated highly in frequency and importance are retained. Citizenship behaviour: voluntary employee behaviours that contribute to organizational goals by improving the context in which work takes place. Interpersonal citizenship: going beyond normal job expectations to assist, support, and develop co-workers and colleagues; helping, courtesy, sportsmanship. Organizational citizenship: going beyond normal expectations to improve operations of the organization, as well as defending the organization and being loyal to it; voice, civic virtue, and boosterism. Counterproductive behaviours: employee behaviours that intentionally hinder organizational goal accomplishment. Production deviance: wasting resources, substance abuse; minor and organizational. Property deviance: reducing efficiency; harming company assets; sabotage, theft; serious and organizational. Political deviance: disadvantaging individuals; gossiping, incivility; minor and interpersonal. Personal aggression: hostility and physicality towards coworkers; harassment and abuse; serious and interpersonal. Management by objectives: a management philosophy that bases employee evaluations on whether specific performance goals have been met. Behaviourally anchored rating scales: the use of examples of critical incidents to evaluate an employee’s job performance behaviours directly. 360-degree feedback: a performance evaluation system that uses ratings provided by supervisors, coworkers, subordinates, customers, and the employees themselves. Forced ranking: a performance management system in which managers rank subordinates relative to one another. Organizational commitment: an employee’s desire to remain a member of an organization. Withdrawal behaviour: an employee’s actions that are intended to avoid work situations. Affective commitment: an employee’s desire to remain a member of an organization due to a feeling of emotional attachment; there is a strong relationship between citizenship behaviours and this commitment. Continuance commitment: an employee’s desire to remain a member of an organization due to awareness of the costs of leaving; weak negative correlation with citizenship behaviours and task performance). Normative commitment: an employee’s desire to remain a member of an organization due to a feeling of obligation. Focus of commitment: the people, places, and things that inspire a desire to remain a member of an organization. Erosion model: a model suggesting that those employees with fewer bonds with coworkers will be more likely to quit. Social influence model: a model that suggests that employees with direct linkages to coworkers who leave the organization will themselves become more likely to leave. Embeddedness: an employee’s connection to and sense of fit in the organization and community; increases continuance commitment. Exit: withdrawal behaviour; a response to a negative work event in which one becomes often absent from work or voluntarily leaves the organization; negatively correlated with organizational commitment. Voice: withdrawal behaviour; a response, often in reaction to a negative work event, in which an employee offer constructive suggestions for change; positively correlated with organizational commitment. Loyalty: withdrawal behaviour; a passive response to a negative work event in which one publicly supports the situation but privately hopes for improvement; positively correlated with organizational commitment. Neglect: withdrawal behaviour; a passive, destructive response to a negative work event in which one’s interest and effort in work decline; negatively correlated with organizational commitment. Psychological withdrawal: a form of neglect; mentally escaping the work environment; daydreaming, socializing, looking busy, moonlighting, and cyberloafing. Physical withdrawal: a form of exit; a physical escape from the work environment; tardiness, long breaks, missing meetings, absenteeism. Trends in commitment: increasing diversity, changing employee-employer relationships. Psychological contracts: employee beliefs about what employees owe the organization and what the organization owes them. Transactional contracts: psychological contracts that focus on a narrow set of specific monetary obligations. Relational contracts: psychological contracts that focus on a broad set of open-ended and subjective obligations. Perceived organizational support: the degree to which employees believe that the organization values their contributions and cares about their well-being. Job satisfaction: a pleasurable emotional state resulting from the appraisal of one’s job or job experiences; represents how a person feels and thinks about his or her job. Values: things that people consciously or unconsciously want to seek or attain. Value-percept theory: a theory that argues that job satisfaction depends on whether the employee perceives that his or her job supplies those things that he or she values; dissatisfaction = (Vwant – Vhave)*Vimportance; pay satisfaction, promotion satisfaction, supervision satisfaction, coworker satisfaction, satisfaction with the work itself. Meaningfulness of work: a psychological state indicating the degree to which work tasts are viewed as something that counts in the employee’s system of philosophies and beliefs. Responsibility for outcomes: a psychological state indicating the degree to which employees feel they are key drivers of the quality of work output. Knowledge of results: a psychological state indicating the extent to which employees are aware of how well or how poorly they are doing. Job characteristics theory: a theory that argues that five core characteristics (VISAF) combine to result in high levels of satisfaction with the work itself. Variety: the degree to which a job requires different activities and skills. Identity: the degree to which a job offers completion of a whole, identifiable piece of work. Significance: the degree to which a job really matters and impacts society as a whole. Autonomy: the degree to which a job allows individual freedom and discretion regarding how the work is to be done. Feedback: the degree to which the job itself provides information on how well the job holder is doing. Knowledge and skill: moderator; the degree to which employees have the aptitude and competence needed to succeed on their job. Growth need strength: the degree to which employees desire to develop themselves further. Job enrichment: when job duties and responsibilities are expanded to provide increased levels of core job characteristics. Moods: states of feeling that are mild in intensity, last for an extended period of time, and have no direction. Affective events theory: a theory that describes how workplace events can generate emotional reactions that impact work behaviours. Emotions: intense feelings, often lasting for a short duration, that are clearly directed at someone or some circumstance. Positive emotions: employees’ feelings of joy, pride, relief, hope, love, and compassion. Negative emotions: employees’ feelings of fear, guilt, shame, sadness, envy, and disgust. Emotional labour: the management of emotions employees must do to complete their job duties successfully. Emotional contagion: the idea that emotions can be transferred from one person to another. *Job satisfaction has a weak positive effect on job performance (task performance and citizenship behaviours) and a strong positive effect on organizational commitment (normative and effective). Life satisfaction: the degree to which employees feel a sense of happiness with their lives in general. Stress: the psychological response to demands when there is something at stake for the individual, and when coping with these demands would tax or exceed the individual’s capacity or resources Stressors: demands that cause the stress response Strains: negative consequences of the stress response Transactional theory of stress: a theory that explains how stressful demands are perceived and appraised, as well and how people respond to the perceptions of appraisals Primary appraisal: evaluation of whether a demand is stressful and, if it is, the implications of the stressor in terms of personal goals and well-being Benign job demands: job demands that are not appraised as being stressful Hindrance stessors: stressors that tend to be appraised as thwarting progress toward growth and achievement; weak negative relationship with job performance and strong negative relationship with organizational commitment (affective and normative) Challenge stressors: stressors that tend to be appraised as opportunities for growth and achievement; challenge stressors have a weak relationship with job performance and a moderate relationship with organizational commitment (affective and normative) Role conflict: a work hindrance stressor; others having differing expectations of what an individual needs to do in a role Role ambiguity: a work hindrance stressor; a lack of direction and information about what needs to be done in a role Role overload: a work hindrance stressor; an excess of demands on employees preventing them from working effectively Daily hassles: a work hindrance stressor; minor day-to-day demands that interfere with work accomplishment Time pressure: a work challenge stressor; the sense that the amount of time allotted to do a job is not quite enough Work complexity: a work challenge stressor; the degree to which job requirements tax or just exceed employee capabilities Work responsibility: a work challenge stressor; the number and importance of the obligations that an employee has to others Work-family conflict: a non-work hindrance stressor; the demands of a work role hinder the fulfillment of the demands in a family role Negative life events: a non-work hindrance stressor; events such as a divorce or death of a family member that tend to be appraised as a hindrance Financial uncertainty: a non-work hindrance stressor; uncertainties with regard to the potential for loss of livelihood, or the ability to pay expenses Family time demands: a non-work challenge stressor; the amount of time committed to fulfilling family responsibilities Personal development: a non-work challenge stressor; participation in activities outside of work that foster learning and growth Positive life events: a non-work challenge stressor; events such as marriage or the birth of a child that tend to be appraised as a challenge Secondary appraisal: when people determine how to cope with the various stressors they face Coping: behaviours and thoughts used to manage stressful demands and the emotions associated with the stressful demands Behavioural coping: physical activities used to deal with stressful situations Cognitive coping: thoughts used to deal with a stressful situation Problem-focused coping: behaviours and cognitions of an individual intended to manage the stressful situation itself Emotion-focused coping: behaviours and cognitions of an individual intended to help manage emotional reactions to the stressful demands Physiological strains: reactions from stressors that harm the human body; illness, high blood pressure, back pain, etc. Psychological strains: negative psychological reactions from stressors; burnout, depression, anxiety, irritability etc. Behavioural strains: patterns of negative behaviour that are associated with other strains; alcohol and drug use, teeth grinding, compulsive behaviour, overeating Burnout: the emotional, mental, and physical exhaustion from coping with stressful demands on a continuing basis Type A Behaviour Pattern: people who tend to experience more stressors, to appraise more demands as stressful, and to be prone to experiencing more strains Social support: the help people receive from others when they are confronted with stressful demands Instrumental support: the help people receive from others that can be used to address a stressful demand directly Emotional support: the empathy and understanding people receive from others that can be used to alleviate emotional distress from stressful demands Stress audit: an assessment of the sources of stress in the workplace Job sharing: reducing stressors; when two people share the responsibilities of a single job *another way to reduce stressors is to offer sabbaticals Training interventions: increasing resources; practices that increase employees’ competencies and skills Supportive practices: increasing resources; ways in which organizations help employees manage and balance their demands Relaxation techniques: reducing strains; calming activities to reduce stress Cognitive-behavioural techniques: reducing strains; various practices that help workers cope with life’s stressors in a rational manner Health and wellness programs: reducing strains; employee assistance programs that help workers with personal problems; weight control, addictions counselling, smoking cessation etc. Motivation: a set of energetic forces that determine the direction, intensity, and persistence of an employee’s work effort; strong positive relationship with job performance; moderate positive effect on organizational commitment (especially equity) Engagement: a contemporary synonym for high levels of intensity and persistence in work effort Expectancy theory: a theory that describes the cognitive process employees go through to make choices among different voluntary responses Expectancy: the belief that exerting a high level of effort will result in successful performance on some task Self-efficacy: the belief that a person has the capabilities needed to perform the behaviours required on some task Instrumentality: the belief that successful performance will result in some outcome or outcomes Valence: the anticipated value of the outcomes associated with successful performance Needs: groupings or clusters of outcomes viewed as having critical psychological of physiological consequences Extrinsic motivation: desire to put forth work effort due to some contingency that depends on task performance; pay, bonuses, promotion, appraise, free time, etc. Intrinsic motivation: desire to put forth work effort due to the sense that task performance serves as its own reward; accomplishment, knowledge gain, skill development, etc. Meaning of money: the idea that money can have symbolic value (achievement, respect, freedom) in addition to economic value Motivational force: (Expectancy)thesumof(Instrumentalities)(Valence) Goal setting theory: a theory that views goals as the primary drivers of the intensity and persistence of effort Specific and difficult goals: goals that stretch an employee to perform at his or her maximum level while still staying within the boundaries of his or her ability Self-set goals: the internalized goals that people use to monitor their own progress Feedback: in goal setting theory, it refers to progress updates on work goals; moderator Task complexity: the degree to which the information and actions needed to complete a task are complicated; moderator Goal commitment: the degree to which a person is determined to reach a goal; moderator; rewards, publicity, support, participation, resources S.M.A.R.T. goals: acronym that stands for specific, measurable, achievable, results-based, time-sensitive goals Equity theory: a theory that suggests that employees create a mental ledger of the outcomes they receive for their job inputs, relative to some comparison other Comparison other: another person who provides a frame of reference for judging equity Equity distress: an internal tension that results from being overrewarded for underrewarded relative to some comparison other Cognitive distortion: a reevaluation of the inputs an employee brings to a job, often occuring in response to equity distress Internal comparisons: comparing oneself to someome in your same company External comparisons: comparing oneself to someone in a different company Psychological empowerment: an energy rooted in the belief that tasks are contributing to some larger purpose Meaningfulness: a psychological state reflecting one’s feelings about work tasks, goals, and purposes, and the degree to which they contribute to society and fulfill one’s ideals and passions; a factor in psycholgical empowerment Self-determination: a sense of choice in the initiation and continuation of work tasks; a factor in psycholgical empowerment Competence: the capability to perform work tasks successfully; a factor in psycholgical empowerment Impact: the sense that a person’s actions “make a difference”- that progress is being made towards fulfilling some important purpose; a factor in psycholgical empowerment Individual-focused compensation plan: piece-rate pay, merit pay, lump-sum bonuses, recognition awards Unit-focused compensation plan: gain sharing Organization-focused compensation plan: profit sharing Trust: the willingness to be vulnerable to an authority based on positive expectations about the authority’s actions and intentions; moderate positive relationship with job performance; strong positive relationship with organizational commitment Justice: the perceived fairness of an authority’s decision making Ethics: the degree to which the behaviours of an authority are in accordance with generally accepted moral norms Disposition-based trust: trust that is rooted in one’s own personality, as opposed to a careful assessment of the trustee’s trustworthiness Cognition-based trust: trust that is rooted in a rational assessment of the authority’s trustworthiness Affect-based trust: trust that depends on feelings toward the authority that go beyond any rational assessment of trustworthiness Trust propensity: a general expectation that the words, promises, and statements of individuals can be relied upon; a factor in disposition-based trust Trustworthiness: characteristics or attributes of a person that inspire trust, including ability, benevolence, and integrity Ability: the skills, competencies, and areas of expertise that enable an authority to be successful in some specific area Benevolence: the belief that an authority wants to do good for a trustor, apart from any selfish or profit-centred motives Integrity: the perception that an authority adheres to a set of values and principles that the trustor finds acceptable Distributive justice: the perceived fairness of decision-making outcomes; equity norms Procedural justice: the perceived fairness of decision-making processes; voice, correctability, bias suppression, representativeness, and accuracy Interpersonal justice: the perceived fairness of the interpersonal treatment received by employees by authorities; respect and propriety Informational justice: the perceived fairness of the communications provided to employees from authorities; justification and truthfulness Whistle-blowing: employees’ exposure of illegal or immoral acts by their employer Four-component model: a model that argues that ethical behaviours result from the multistage sequence of moral awareness, moral judgement, moral intent, and ethical behaviour Moral awareness: recognition by an authority that a moral issue exists in a situation Moral intensity: the degree to which an issue has ethical urgency; a factor of moral awareness Moral attentiveness: the degree to which people chronically perceive and consider issues of morality during their experiences; a factor of moral awareness Moral judgement: when an authority can accurately identify the “right” course of action Cognitive moral development: as people age and mature, they move through several states of moral development, each more mature and sophisticated than the prior one; preconventional, conventional, principled Moral principles: prescriptive guides for making moral judgements; consequentialist: utilitarianism, egoism; non- consequentialist: ethics of duties, virtue ethics Moral intent: an authority’s degree of commitment to the moral course of action Moral identity: the degree to which a person views himself or herself as a moral person; a factor of moral intent Economic exchange: work relationships that resemble a contractual agreement by which employees fulfill job duties in exchange for financial compensation Social exchange: work relationships that are characterized by mutual investment, with employees willing to engage in “extra mile” sorts of behaviours because they trust that their efforts will eventually be rewarded Corporate social responsibility: a perspective that acknowledges that the responsibility of a business encompasses the economic legal, ethical, and citizenship expectations of society Learning: a relatively permanent change in an employee’s knowledge or skill that results from experience; moderate relationship with job performance; weak relationship with organizational commitment Decision making: the process of generating and choosing from a set of alternatives to solve a problem Expertise: the knowledge and skills that distinguish experts from novices Explicit knowledge: knowledge that is easily communicated and available to everyone Tacit knowledge: knowledge that employees can only learn through experience Contingencies of reinforcement: four specific consequences used by organizations to modify employee behaviour Positive reinforcement: a reinforcement contingency in which a positive outcome follows a desired behaviour Negative reinforcement: a reinforcement contingency in which a positive outcome follows a desired behaviour Punishment: an unwanted outcome that follows an unwanted behaviour Extinction: the removal of a positive outcome following an unwanted behaviour Schedules of reinforcement: the timing of when contingencies are applied or removed Continuous reinforcement: a schedule of reinforcement in which a specific consequence follows each and every occurrence of a certain behaviour; high performance; praise Fixed-interval schedule: a schedule whereby reinforcement occurs at fixed time periods; average performance; paycheque Variable-interval schedule: a schedule whereby reinforcement occurs at random periods of time; moderately high performance; supervisor walk-bys Fixed-ratio schedule: a schedule whereby reinforcement occurs following a fixed number of desired behaviours; high performance; piece-rate pay Variable-ratio schedule: a schedule whereby behaviours are reinforced after a varying number of them have been exhibited; very high performance; commission pay Social learning theory: a theory that argues that people in organizations learn through observing others Behavioural modelling: when employees observe the actions of others, learn from what they observe, and then repeat the observed behaviour; attentional process, retention process, production process, reinforcement Learning orientation: a predisposition or attitude according to which building competence is deemed more important by an employee than demonstrating competence Performance-prove orientation: a predisposition or attitude by which employees focus on demonstrating their competence so that others think favourably of them Performance-avoid orientation: a predisposition or attitude by which employees focus on demonstrating their competence so that others will not think poorly of them Programmed decisions: decisions that are somewhat automatic because the decision maker’s knowledge allows him or her to recognize the situation and the course of action to be taken Intuition: an emotional judgement based on quick- unconscious gut feelings Crisis situation: a change- sudden or evolving- that results in an urgent problem that must be addressed immediately Non-programmed decision: decisions made by employees when a problem is new, complex, or not recognized Rational decision-making model: a step-by-step approach to making decisions that is designed to maximize outcomes by examining all available alternatives Bounded rationality: the notion that people do not have the ability or the resources to process all available information and alternatives when making a decision Satisficing: what a decision maker is doing when choosing the first acceptable alternative considered Selective perfection: the tendency for people to see their environment only as it affects them and as it is consistent with their expectations Projection bias: the faulty perception by decision makers that others think, feel, and act as they do Social identity theory: a theory that people identity themselves according to various groups to which they belong and judge others according to groups they associate with Stereotype: assumptions made about others based on their social group membership Heuristics: simple and efficient rules of thumb that allow one to make decisions more easily Availability bias: the tendency for people to base their judgements on information that is easier to recall Other biases: anchoring, framing, representativeness, contrast, recency Fundamental attribution error: the tendency for people to judge others’ behaviours as being due to internal factors such as ability, motivation, or attitudes Self-serving bias: when one attributes one’s own failure to external factors and success to internal factors Consensus: used by decision makers to attribute cause; whether other individuals behave the same way under similar circumstances; high means external Distinctiveness: used by decision makers to attribute cause; whether the person being judged acts in a similar fashion under different circumstances; h
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