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Chapter 20 The Lymphatic System.doc

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Anatomy and Physiology
Jacqueline Carnegie

Chapter 20 The Lymphatic Systemthe lymphatic system consists of 3 parts1 lymphatic vessels2 lymph the fluid contained in lymphatic vessels3 lymph nodes cleanse the lymph as it passes through itlymph organs and tissues include the spleen thymus tonsils etc they have phagocytic cells and lymphocytes play an important role in the bodys defence mechanisms Lymphatic Vesselsleaked fluids and plasma proteins that escape from the bloodstream is carried back to the blood to ensure the cardiovascular system has sufficient blood volume to operate properly lymphatic vessels lymphatics are made up of drainage vessels that collect the interstitial fluid and return it into the blood streamwhen interstitial fluid enters the lymphatics it is called lymph they function to1 return excess tissue fluid to the bloodstream2 return leaked proteins to the blood3 carry absorbed fat from the intestine to the blood through lacteals Distribution and Structure of Lymphatic Vessels lymphatic vessels form a oneway system where lymph is transported to the heart transport system begins with microscopic blindended lymphatic capillaries capillaries weave between tissue cells and blood capillariesabsent from bones teeth bone marrow and the central nervous systemvery permeable permeability is due to 2 unique structural modifications1 endothelial cells forming the walls of lymphatic capillaries are not tightly joined the edges of adjacent cells overlap loosely forming flaplike minivalves that are easily opened 2 collagen filaments anchor the endothelial cells to surrounding structures an increase in interstitial fluid volume opens the minivalves rather than causing the lymphatic capillaries to collapse when fluid pressure in the interstitial space is greater than the pressure in the lymphatic capillary the minivalve flaps open allowing fluid to enter the lymphatic capillarywhen the pressure is greater inside the lymphatic capillary the endothelial minivalve flaps are close preventing lymph from leaking out as pressure moves it along the vessel
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