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Lecture

Chapter 22 The Respiratory System Anatomy.doc


Department
Anatomy and Physiology
Course Code
ANP 1105
Professor
Jacqueline Carnegie

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Chapter 22: The Respiratory System
-functions so supply the body with oxygen and dispose carbon dioxide
-respiration involves:
1) Pulmonary Ventilation
-movement of air into and out of the lungs so that gases there are continuously changed and
refreshed (i.e.: breathing)
2) External Respiration
-movement of oxygen from the lungs to the blood and of carbon dioxide from the blood to
the lungs
3) Transport of Respiratory Gases
-transport of oxygen from the lungs to tissue cells of the body
-transport of carbon dioxide from the tissue cells to the lungs
-accomplished by the cardiovascular system using blood as the transporting fluid
4) Internal Respiration
-movement of oxygen from blood to the tissue cells
-movement of carbon dioxide from tissue cells to the blood
-the first 2 functions are the specialty of the respiratory system and functions 3 and 4
involve the cardiovascular system
Functional Anatomy of the Respiratory System
-respiratory system includes the nose, nasal cavity, paranasal sinuses, the pharynx, the
larynx, the trachea, the bronchi and their smaller branches, the lungs, and alveoli
-respiratory system made up of 2 zones:
1) Conducting Zone
-includes all other respiratory passageways
-provide rigid paths for air to reach the gas exchange sites
-cleanse, humidify, and warm incoming air
2) Respiratory Zone
-the actual site of gas exchange
-composed of respiratory bronchioles, alveolar ducts, and alveoli
-microscopic structures
The Nose and Paranasal Sinuses
-the only externally visible part of the respiratory system
-functions to:

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1) provide and airway for respiration
2) moisten and warm entering air
3) filters and cleans inspired air
4) serves as a resonating chamber for speech
5) houses the olfactory receptors
-structures are divided into the external nose and the internal nasal cavity
-the external nose includes the root (area directly between eyebrow), the bridge (area
under the root), dorsum nasi (the anterior margin running down the nose) which
terminates at the apex (tip of the nose), the philtrum (shallow vertical groove above your
lip), and the nostrils (external openings)
-the skeletal framework of the external nose includes the nasal and frontal bones (forming
the bridge and root respectively), the maxillary bones laterally, and flexible plates of
hyaline cartilage (the alar and septal cartilages and the lateral processes of the septal
cartilage)
-noses vary in shape and size due to the differences in nasal cartilage
-the skin covering the dorsal and lateral aspects are thin and contains many sebaceous
glands
-the internal nasal cavity lies in and posterior to the external nose
-air enters the cavity by passing the nostrils or nares
-nasal cavity divided by the nasal septum
-nasal septum formed by the septal cartilage
-nasal cavity is continuous posteriorly with the nasal portion of the pharynx through
the posterior nasal apertures or choanae
-roof is formed by the ethmoid and sphenoid bones of the skull
-floor is formed by the palate (separates the nasal cavity and the oral cavity)
-anterior palate made up of palatine bones and maxillary bones = hard
-posterior palate is unsupported and muscular = soft
-the nasal vestibule just above the nostrils is lined with skin containing sebaceous and
sweat glands and hair follicles
-hair follicles (vibrissae) filter coarse particles from inspired air
-the olfactory epithelium (mucosa) contains smell receptors
-the respiratory mucosa is pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium containing goblet
cells and is richly supplied with mucous and serous glands (mucous cells secrete mucous
and serous cells secrete watery fluid containing enzymes)

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-each day, they secrete a litre of mucus containing lysozyme (antibacterial
enzyme)
-mucous traps dust, bacteria, debris, etc.
-epithelial cells in the respiratory mucosa secrete defensins (natural antibiotics
that help get rid of invading microbes)
-mucous helps humidify the air
-ciliated cells of the respiratory mucosa create a current that moves the sheet of
contaminated mucus toward the throat where it is swallowed and digested by
stomach juices
-when cold, cilia become sluggish, allowing mucus to accumulate in the nasal
cavity
-nasal mucosa (epithelium) is supplied with sensory nerve endings
-contact with irritating particles triggers a sneeze reflex
-plexuses (connections) of capillaries and thin-walled veins underlie the nasal epithelium
and warm up incoming air as it flows across the mucosal surface
-when cold air is inspired, the plexuses become engorged with blood and
intensifies the heating process of the air
-nosebleeds are common because of the abundance of superficially (surface)
located blood vessels in the nasal epithelium
-protruding in the middle of each lateral wall of the nasal cavity is the superior nasal
conchae, the middle nasal conchae, and the inferior nasal conchae
-the groove below each concha is the nasal meatus
-conchae increase mucosal surface area that is exposed to air and enhance
turbulence in the cavity
-gases in the inhaled air swirl through the nasal meatus and heavier, nongaseous
particles tend to be deflected onto the mucus-coated surfaces and become trapped
-conchae and nasal mucosa function not only to filter, heat, and moisten inhaled air, but
also reclaim heat and moisture during exhalation
-inhaled air cools the conchae
-during exhalation, cooled conchae precipitate moisture and extract heat from the
humid air flowing over them which minimizes the amount of heat lost from the
body through breathing
-the nasal cavity is surrounded by a ring of paranasal sinuses
-located in the frontal, sphenoid, ethmoid, and maxillary bones
-sinuses lighten the skull
-function to moisten and warm air
-produces mucus which ultimately flow into the nasal cavity
-suctioning effect created by nose blowing helps drain the sinuses
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