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Lecture

January 29th - Monoliths

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Department
Anthropology
Course
ANT2113
Professor
Liam Kilmurray
Semester
Winter

Description
th ANT 2113: January 29 , 2014 Monumental Architecture • Serpent Mounds (Ohio) • Not many stone monuments in North America • Mainly looking at Ireland • The Neolithic, ca. 4,000 BC > Defined by advancing technology o New Stone Age (Palaeolithic = Old Stone Age) o Begins in Atlantic Europe around 4,000 BC o Tool types indicate horticulture o Ceramics emerge • Megalith o Definition: Large Stone o Earliest were built without mortar, and likely built without animal traction o Why did they build them? o Megaliths predominately occur along coastlines along Atlantic seaboard o Found in areas where we did not build afterwards (not in any large cities) • Four major types: • Poul na bron o Classic Dolmen o 2500 BC o Hole of sorrows o Uncremated remains of one newborn, six juc, and 16­22 adults, o Only one of the adults lived beyond 40 years of age • Seefin Wedge Tomb, County Clare, ca. 2500 BC • Silbury Hill o Largest manmade monument in Europe o So far no remains have been found o Non­megalithic monument • Bend of Boyne > sacred ritual area, 3 major complexes of monuments o Passage graves  o Knowth  Constructed c.3200 BC  2 passaged  It consists of a mound measuring 80­95 metres in di. And so 12­15 metres in  height  124 continuous kerbstones circle the mound  Some 22 staellite tombs around Knowth  20 burials  Stone Basin First • Stone basins could have gone in first • Because of width, basin could not fit in, so the basin was probably placed  first. • Have found cremated remains in them • Some had indentations inside  Indicative of the longevity of their structures  Passageway in to the middle and then cruciform found around top  Keystone hasn’t been invented yet = no arch o Dowth (Dubhad)  Had been ignored for many, many years  Built circa 3,300 BC  2 passage tombs, both facing southwest  About 90% of the passages in the others face southeast, so Dowth is an anomaly
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