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Lecture 2

BIO 1130 Lecture Notes - Lecture 2: Fumaric Acid, Electrochemical Gradient, Alpha-Ketoglutaric Acid

Course Code
BIO 1130
Jon Houseman

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Key Questions Unit 2
18. Read the following case study from the perspective of a dietitian. In point form, write five
statements that you would discuss with Curtis, with the goal of improving his health. For each
point, add a sentence that gives him information about metabolism that he should be aware of
and the reasons why he should consider changing his diet and lifestyle.
Curtis is a 50-year-old male. His job is sedentary and he participates in no regular physical
activity. He quit smoking when he was 40, after having had a near-fatal heart attack. His mother
ad father oth suffered heart attaks i their fifties ad his gradother o his other’s side
had two strokes. He drinks energy drinks in the morning with bacon and eggs, and has two
hamburgers and a plate of fries for lunch every day. He always has a serving of meat and salad
for dinner, and a bag of potato chips and a diet soft drink for a snack in the evening.
Curtis needs to start being active, either before or after his work. That just means going for a
walk, to start. Regular exercise can reduce the risk of cardiovascular problems and help burn
extra calories.
It is a positive that Curtis stopped smoking, smoking is awful for your health in every way. Not
only is it unhealthy, but smoking increases your risk of developing lung disease, cardiovascular
disease and or cancer.
He should also cut down on the energy drinks in the morning as it can lead to severe
problems bigger then being tired.
His luh should ot osist of greas food as it is high in saturated/trans fat and
carbohydrates full of simple sugars.
Lastl, his dier is good, ut his sak after dier is’t. Potato hips ad soft driks are just
unhealthy because they are both full of sugar and wrong fats.
19. In three sentences, explain how energy is stored in, and released from ATP. Energy is stored
in the phosphate bonds of ATP. When cells need the energy, the ATP phosphorylates and
breaks off a phosphate bond to produce energy for the cell to use to drive reactions or
20. Identify the following reactions as being either endergonic or exergonic.
a) NAD accepts two electrons and a proton to become NADH. Endergonic
b) Sucrose undergoes hydrolysis to form glucose and fructose. Exergonic
c) During cellular respiration, glucose and oxygen take part in reactions that yield carbon
dioxide and water, and release energy. Exergonic
d) Using the energy harvest from sunlight, water and carbon dioxide are converted to glucose
and oxygen, during photosynthesis. Endergonic
21. a) Create a flow chart, using text, to summarize the ATP, FADH, and NADH production in the
citric acid cycle (stage 3 of respiration), starting with two acetyl-CoA molecules. Include the
number of carbons found at each stage after the two acetyl-CoA molecules. The pyruvate
produced in glycolysis undergoes further breakdown through a process called aerobic
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respiration in most organisms. This process requires oxygen and yields much more energy than
glycolysis. Aerobic respiration is divided into two processes : the Krebs cycle, and the Electron
Transport Chain, which produces ATP through chemiosmotic phosphorylation. The energy
conversion is as follows:
C6H12O6 + 6O -> 6CO2 + 6H2O + energy (ATP)
Krebs Cycle
The pyruvate molecules produced during glycolysis contain a lot of energy in the bonds
between their molecules. In order to use that energy, the cell must convert it into the form of
ATP. To do so, pyruvate molecules are processed through the Kreb Cycle, also known as the
citric acid cycle.
1. Prior to entering the Krebs Cycle, pyruvate must be converted into acetyl CoA (pronounced:
acetyl coenzyme A). This is achieved by removing a CO2 molecule from pyruvate and then
removing an electron to reduce an NAD+ into NADH. An enzyme called coenzyme A is
combined with the remaining acetyl to make acetyl CoA which is then fed into the Krebs Cycle.
The steps in the Krebs Cycle are summarized below:
2. Citrate is formed when the acetyl group from acetyl CoA combines with oxaloacetate from
the previous Krebs cycle..
3. Citrate is converted into its isomer isocitrate..
4. Isocitrate is oxidized to form the 5-aro α-ketoglutarate. This step releases one molecule
of CO2 and reduces NAD+ to NADH2+.
5. The α-ketoglutarate is oxidized to succinyl CoA, yielding CO2 and NADH2+.
6. Succinyl CoA releases coenzyme A and phosphorylates ADP into ATP.
7. Succinate is oxidized to fumarate, converting FAD to FADH2.
8. Fumarate is hydrolized to form malate.
9. Malate is oxidized to oxaloacetate, reducing NAD+ to NADH2+.
b) Based on your flow chart, what is the total production of ATP, NADH, and FADH in this cycle?
We are now back at the beginning of the Krebs Cycle. Because glycolysis produces two pyruvate
molecules from one glucose, each glucose is processes through the kreb cycle twice. For each
molecule of glucose, six NADH2+, two FADH2, and two ATP.
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