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Lecture 1

BIO 1130 Lecture Notes - Lecture 1: Extremophile, Flagellum, Stromatolite


Department
Biology
Course Code
BIO 1130
Professor
Jon Houseman
Lecture
1

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Archaeon Eon
Linnaeus-Taxonomic Hierarchy
There are 5 on earth at the time
When Linnaus did this he only did 2 because he was missing the microscope to be
able to identify the Protista and monera, Fungi didn’t appear because Linnaeus
thought that they were plants who lost their chlorophyll
At this time world was set up into 2 kingdoms and set the stage to use
morphology then expanded over time to 5 kingdoms
How we can divide up the living world using cladistics
One thing we notice is everything is made of cells , with a boundary and a nucleus
in the middle
There was some without nucleus , one with are eukaryote and one without are
prokaryote
Bacteria are eukaryote , we’ve taken divided up the whole world into eukaryote or
prokaryote
We can polarize the condition into no nucleus=0, nucleus=1.
In eukaryotes some of them function as unicellular condition and some function
as multicell.
We then polarized the situation into 0 if you don’t have multicellular condtions
and 1 if you do.
Kingdom Monera-Incldues all prokaryotes
Kingdom Protista-Includes several groups of unicellular eukaryotes
Plants, fungi and Animals are all multicellular
How to separate them?
Plants are different by autotroph, use suns energy to make sugar
Fungi and animals have to consume macromolecules , we need to break them
down into absorbable components , fungiis absorbed of heterotrophs , animals
ingest
We had 5 kingdoms of living world but then molecular biology made us realize by
looking at structures that there was a huge mistake being made looking at bacteria
by lumping it all together assuming it was all the same
Domains of Life- Bacterium fell into 2 different groups , these 2 groups were
and eukarya
We had to put something above the new level above kingdom which was domain ,
3 groups- Eubacteria,archea and eukarya
We don’t know the relationship between these groups and LUCA sat at the bottom
but we didn’t know the spots of the groups
Once we get the domains we have all new taxonomy and monera disappereaed
We watched for was there a nuclear envelope?no
It’s a l , noticed the gene regulation was worked by the operon genes. Couldn’t
notice differences until looking more into it like histones which were used by
archaea and not Eubacteria , DNA was done different in these groups, they also
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had DNA stored differently. Central Dogma manipulated differently in these
groups.
Prokaryote diversity: The eukarya group is extremely diverse
Morphological Diversity: The names out there all represented shape and appearance ,
they realized morphology isn’t telling us enough
Bacterial cells:
All look the same except various shapes and size and set up similarly
Organism that is living at ideal surface to volume ratio , surface to volume ratio
comes up in biology quite a bit
Over time we found out bacteria is more complex then we thought
The outer cell wall is important for it .
Bacterial cell walls:
Gram positive:Gram stain sticks to peptidoglycan wall , which is a chemical
reaction , when you see the color is on there.
Gram negative: Didn’t stain , the peptidoglycan layer is between outer membrane
and plasma membrane , cannot get to the wall
Flagellum-
set of proteins that create sleeve
Takes ATP and pumps protons into the space , end up with proton gradient
Bacterial Reproduction
Endospores and Pili :Little endospore can be long lived , protected from cold and
heat and radiation . Many can be long lived and communicate through pili
Binary Fission:To make perfect copies. Not source of variation
Bacterial Horizontal Gene Transfer:
Bacteria Conjugation plasmid transfer- The plasmid DNA can replicate itself
independently, people were able to open plasmids and put DNA and the bacterium
would absorb. Not same genetic makeup as it started as
Bacteria conjugation gene transfer- Doesen’t necessarily change genetic makeup ,
but at some point plasmid will pop its self out of the genome. Plasmids play large
role in variability.
Transformation- Willing to absorb particles and put them in itself , Bacterum that
comes in contact with any other can incorporate it It will take any.
Transduction-Protein case with piece of genetic material inside. Sometimes it fails
and sometimes a piece of DNA host is leftover , then this becomes packaged up
and infects another bacterium. Viruses moving bacterium around.
Basically Gene Swapping , swapping bits of dna around and trying them.
Metabolic diversity in ATP production and carbon sources
Where do we get the energy to synthesize carbon carbon bonds
When we build carbon there is two ways of attaining the carbon:
Autotrophic: When you build carbon carbon bonds you are going to stitch CO2
together .Carbon initially always came from CO2 ,getting carbon from carbon
dioxide;
Phototrophs-from plants, using sun energy to build the bond
Chemolithotrophs: energy from valence changes in minerals
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