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Lecture 4

BIO 1130 Lecture Notes - Lecture 4: Biopolymer, Phanerozoic


Department
Biology
Course Code
BIO 1130
Professor
Jon Houseman
Lecture
4

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Hadeon Eon
Major eons
- 4 different eons
- Oldest is Hadeon and recent is phanerozic
- All visible in geology of planet because it has been impacted by events happening
- Period of time is experimentation
- Hadeon-Formation time , Stabilizing the solar system with a water etc but no life
, it takes a while for life to arise
Archaen- Life arises , starts with bacterial life and lives in oceans without using
oxygen. Bacteria had tremendous metabolic diversity , can extract high energy molecules
to form ATP.
- Life is about Using protons trapped and moving from concentration of high
gradient to low
- Mix of bacteria doing this
Proterzoic-Taes water molecule and extracts protons for energy and oxygen is left
over.
-Ideal way to get proton
-Bacterium has advantage of extracting energy from environment and getting most
energy then anyone and dominating , spreads globally with so much abundance that
oxygen it is producing is being dissolved in oceans and becomes poisonous to other
oxygens
-other bacterias go into hiding where theres no oxygens
-oxidizing environment
-all minerals in reduced state start to oxidize
-oxidizing everything in ocean
-water becomes saturated with as oxygen it can hold and this gets released into the air
-first half of time there is no oxygen in the air
-origins of air and ozone all back to the bacteria
Phanerozic-
Single cells become multicellular organisms
-occurs three times , three groups of multicellular organisms today , to be
multicellular that means to cells must’ve been able to communicate-communication of
cells is hallmark to diversity of multicellular organisms
- happens first time three times -plants, animals , fungi
More detailed into the 4 eons
Phanerozoic
Paleozoic-Massive explosion of invertebrates life in oceans , oceans are habituated by
eukaryote single cell-fungi, all photosynthetic life in ocean is single cell ,multi cellular
invertebrates feed off those , all continue to eat off each other until explosion of
vertebrates
-plants make appearance on land
-insects are on land helping plants and feeding off them
-lung fish eveolves into amphibians

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Mesozoic-Dominant life form is reptile
-first vertebrates there
- Plants make major change , brand new to reproduce : flower and seed
Cenozoic- Dinosaurs disappear , 5th major mass extinction
- When this gets vacated , the two groups that explode become mammals and birds
- -insects were not affected
Remember HAPPPMC for eons and eras
In each of these ecological times the living world is a interacting mass , they all help
in the success of each other.
Galaxies-
Concept of how Universe how we know it was formed by Big bang theory with huge
implosion and all matters generated start spreading across universe and pieces join
together known as galaxies.
-all interact with each other and disturb any balance there was when they formed.
- Constantly being torn apart and joined and broken , ones become bigger and will attract
more and more
-As these objects start increasing and attract more and more they become very large , they
pull in a lot of material of solar system so fast that when it hits it, it explodes and creates
large amounts of energy
-Each of solar system have large objects in middle that ignites. What fuels this is the
elements being accumulated , hydrogen being turnt into helium , all this energy is coming
off sun.
-Sun has life to it , starts small and becomes large after pulling in all the matter , contains
98% mass of solar system. Pulls it all in and as solar system stabilizes. Planets that
weren’t pulled in with the sun or some were shot out and refused. The heavier the planet
the closer to the sun it is , only metal planets can be close to the sun and the farther it is
from the sun it is a gas planet.
Gradation of heavy metal turning into gas planets , during this formation of solar system
there is still a lot of space metal flying around .
-If asteroids fly in they could be sucked in to planets closer to the sun because their
gravitational force is so strong , if it Is not pulled in there it will probably be pulled into
the sun.
Late heavy bombardment: Nice model****
-At one point in our solar system , huge belt of asteroids and planetary material that
circulated the planetary core
-believed we have non continuous gradient is because as these planets were forming and
pulling in things with their gravitational pull their mass increase. Maintain stable orbit by
shifting things out
When planets were studied , they realized the composition doesent follow what everyone
assumed. Objects should’ve formed at center .
-Point where Saturn and Jupiter had perfect orbits at a point. As planets were forming ,
getting to point where there is 1:2 ratio of size in orbits.
-Because the ratio they become very close to each other and there is gravitational pull and
shockkwaves , causes elliptical orbits seen today.
-All other objects are impacted by this gravitational pull
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