BIO 1130 Lecture Notes - Lecture 3: Chromosomal Translocation, Dont, Tetrapod
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Modern Theory of Evolution
1. Adaptive radiation: A cluster of closely related species that are each adaptively
specialized to a specific habitat or food source.
2. Advanced characters: In current usage, approximately equivalent to personality.
The sum of the relatively fixed personality traits and habitual modes of response of
3. Allele: One of two or more versions of a gene.
4. Allele frequencies: The abundance of one allele relative to others at the same gene
locus in individuals of a population.
5. Allopatric speciation: The evolution of reproductive isolating mechanisms between
two populations that are geographically separated.
6. Allopolyploidy: The genetic condition of having two or more complete sets of
chromosomes from different parent species.
7. Anagenesis: The slow accumulation of evolutionary changes in a lineage over time.
8. Apomorphy: a specialized trait or character that is unique to a group or species : a
character state (such as the presence of feathers) not present in an ancestral form.
9. Autoapomorphy: A distinctive anatomical feature, known as a derived trait, that is
unique to a given terminal group.
10.Autopolypoloidy: The genetic condition of having more than two sets of
chromosomes from the same parent species.
11.Behavioural isolation: A prezygotic reproductive isolating mechanism in which two
species do not mate because of differences in courtship behaviour; also known as
12.Beneficial mutation: A change in the chemistry of a gene that is perpetuated in
subsequent divisions of the cell in which it occurs; a change in the sequence of base
pairs in the chromosomal molecule.
13.Biological species: The definition of species based on the ability of populations to
interbreed and produce fertile offspring.
14.Bottleneck effect: Drastic short-term reductions in population size caused by
natural disasters, disease, or predators; can lead to random changes in the
population's gene pool.
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15.Character polarity: refers to the cladistic relationship among character states within
characters, the identification of the member of a pair of alternative character states
that is relatively plesiomorphic, and the member that is relatively apomorphic.
Character polarity is fundamental to cladistic analysis because it identifies the
synapomorphies that diagnose clades or monophyletic groups on cladograms.
16.Chromosomal Inversion: DNA breaks at 2 points within a chromosome (or at the
end) and does a 180 degree flip so that the genes are now in the wrong order. When
the homologous chromosomes pair in prophase I of meiosis, the genes on the
chromosomes need to pair up and the only way that this can happen is if the
homologous pairs form an inversion loop. If a cross over occurs within this inversion
loop, it can lead to loss or extra DNA in the gametes. For this reason, people with
inversions in their body or germ cells, have lower fertility and can produce offspring
with deletions and duplications.
17.Chromosomal mutation: A mutation involving a long segment of dna. These
mutations can involve deletions, insertions, or inversions of sections of dna. In some
cases, deleted sections may attach to other chromosomes, disrupting both the
chromosomes that loses the dna and the one that gains it. Also referred to as a
18.Chromosomal translocation: Chromosomal translocation that is a chromosomal
segment is moved from one position to another, either within the same chromosome
or to another chromosome.
19.Clade: A monophyletic group of organisms that share homologous features derived
from a common ancestor.
20.Cladistics: An approach to systematics that uses shared derived characters to infer
the phylogenetic relationships and evolutionary history of groups of organisms.
21.Genetic equilibrium: the point at which neither the allele frequencies nor genotype
frequencies in a population change in succeeding generations.
22.Genotype frequencies: the percentages of individuals possessing each genotype.
Represent how the dominant and recessive alleles are distributed among individuals
23.Hardy-Weinberg principle: Geneticists wondered how could recessive alleles not
have been canceled out by natural selection and replaced. This principle showed
that dominant alleles DON’T NEED to replace recessive ones. This principle is a
mathematical null model (predicts what we would see if a factor had no effect,
meaning IT CAN BE USED AS A CONTROL TO SEE WHETHER OR NOT
MICROEVOLUTION OCCURS) that explains how genotype frequencies are
established in sexually reproducing organisms and how evolution DOESN’T occur.
P^2+2pq+q^2=1 is what you get when you cross two individuals that are
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