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Lecture 10

BIO 1130 Lecture Notes - Lecture 10: Monophyly, Cladistics, Synapomorphy


Department
Biology
Course Code
BIO 1130
Professor
Jon Houseman
Lecture
10

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Cladistic (phylogenetic) Taxonomy:
what did it start at, what did it end up as
ex. Radial vs bilateral symmetry: which came first?
Hennig: Gave us a way to look at the world
"An event occurs at a branch, so every clade after that branch shares/ inherits that event"
ex. addition of a spine at a branch, then every clade after the branch has a spine
Apomorphies:
Derived characters within a group (evolutionary lineage)
Plesiomorphies:
Primitive characters within a group
Synapomorphies:
Derived characters shared between groups
Symplesiomorphies:
Shared primitive characters that are shared between groups
Autapomorphy:
Character that is unique to one group
Cladograms:
Monophyletic:
Shows all the descendants
Correct Cladogram
Polyphyletic:
We don't know the phylogenetic story (What is the common ancestor)
(ex. arthropods: we cannot find a common ancestor)
Wrong Cladogram- branching off same group
Paraphyletic:
Not all the descendants
(ex. Birds should be reptiles)
Wrong Cladogram- taxon in the wrong group
Evolution of all animals:
Choanoflagellates:
unicellular with flagella
one day, Cells were stuck together, so the group was better able to survive
developed cell to cell communication
formed tissue
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