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Lecture 10

BIO 1130 Lecture Notes - Lecture 10: Autotroph, Microtubule, Shoulder Girdle

Course Code
BIO 1130
Jon Houseman

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Phanerozoic eon - Paleozoic era: Explosion of multicellular life, from the oceans a transition to land, and
a massive mass extinction.
Part A - Cambrian and Ordivician (132):
At the end of the cambrian there are tons of bony fish with their mouths open, this disappears
Acoelomate No cavity in mesoderm for example a flatworm (thought to
be the first but no in fact the coelomate)
Google: is a process in which organisms diversify rapidly
into a multitude of new forms, particularly when a change in
the environment makes new resources available, creates new
challenges, or opens new environmental niches. Snails for
a mobile cell (moving like an amoeba) in the body of
invertebrates such as echinoderms, mollusks, tunicates or
Amoeboid sperm is a type of cell or organism which has the ability to alter its
shape, primarily by extending and retracting pseudopods.
combines pumping and food capturing choanocytes with a
variety of canals, chambers, and spaces through which water
flows. In sponges the aquiferous system is arranged into
three different architectures: asconoid,syconoid (very small
canal where water moves in really fast), and leuconoid
(much larger canals with chambers). water is drawn in
through cells in the body wall and food is filtered out
digestive cavity of the embryo at the gastrula stage of
development in animals. It is formed by invagination of
mesoderm and endoderm cells, opens to the outside by a
blastopore, and finally develops into the gut cavity.
Articulated exoskeleton of plates
Muscles arranged in bands/strands across the joints for
Compound eye
Very large group that includes Tirilobites (extinct), crustacea

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(marine), spiders and insects (terrestrial).
When they moved onto land, the first were insects. They ate
the spores of plants. Tagmatization
each segment has a function
head=6 segments (for feeding, compound eye, etc)
Thorax=3 segments (for 3 pairs of legs, all muscle, has 2
pairs of wings)
Abdomen= 11-13 segments (for large food storage, lots of
eggs, and to expand)
All insects have this plan and it hasn't changed
morphologically even though they look different.
Insects were the first to fly
They flew to seasonal diverse habitats to tap into new
Could easily escape predators(amphibians)
Perfectly adapted
Waterproof skeleton
took gland cells that made epicuticle made of waxes and
hydrophobic material
Shilac bugs made to waterproof furniture, boil ground bug,
all that is left is the hydrophobic material, dry it out, put it in
ethanol solution
Waterproof mating
package a sperm to waterproof that female has to open
egg has hard cover on it that is waterproof and there is only
one opening
body plan
example: sponges
can only be cut in one direction
Bivalve (Clams) Have some mollusc characteristics but they are just
organized differently. Have a large gill as a feeding structure
and a set of muscles that open and close the shell. they use

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their foot to burrow into the sediment, filtering water and
getting food. Very successful defence.
Blastopore In protosome development, the first opening in
development, the blastopore, becomes the animal's mouth.
In deuterostome development, the blastopore becomes the
animal's anus.
Blastula In embryology, the general case it undergoes cell division,
and as it undergoes cell divisions it turns into a hollow ball
of cells that is only one layer thick.
Bryozoa Any of various small aquatic animals of the
phylum Bryozoa that form encrusting or branching colonies
attached to surfaces such as rocks, pilings, and seaweed
Burgess shales
When tectonic plates moved it raises the Laurentia shelf
(SEE CAMBRIAN EXPLOSION) to become the rockies.
They contained the fossils of lots of soft bodied organisms
so well preserved that you can dissect the fossils and their
organs. Director of the smithsonian museum found them.
There should be the same fossils in North China and Siberia
from ancient ocean. Showed us how to get more info.
Snowball earth
late proterozoic
single cell
catastrophic event
froze all diversification and development of earth
continents were grouped at the equator as a solid rock and
minerals are entering the ocean and since sun reflects off the
rock, it doesnt warm up at its core. The minerals affect the
carbon cycle and salt it created that precipitates to the botom
of the ocean
Carbon is being pulled out of the air to replace the loss in
the ocean to keep conditions normal as its diversity explodes
but greenhouse gases are gone so the earth freezes.
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