BIO 1130 Lecture Notes - Lecture 1: Phytoplankton, Centrosome, Endomembrane System

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7 Aug 2016
Proterozoic Eon
9+2 organization: Name for the pattern of arrangement that microtubules are placed in to
form flagella or cilia (pairs of microtubules placed in groups of 9).
Alternation of generations: In plants, they spend half of their lives as haploid
(gametophyte) half as diploid (sporocyte).
Amoeboid (Amoeboid) movement: Type of locomotion in protists, involves the use of
molecular motors (myosin motors on an actin track) to push endoplasm against the
ectoplasm (or turn endoplasm into ecoplasm?) to push the entire protist forward.
Asexual reproduction: Reproduction where offspring comes from a single parent.
Autotroph: An organism that produces energy for itself without consuming other
Bacteria (Eubacteria): A kingdom of organisms.
Bacteriophage: A virus that attacks bacteria.
Basal body: An organ formed from a centriole and some microtubules.
Bikont: A eukaryotic organism (cell?) that has two flagella.
Cellular division of labour: The division of labour for the organelles of a cell.
Cellular gliding: An early form of eukaryotic motion, where the centrosome uses
microtubules to push against the inside of the cell, moving it.
Centriole: A set of microtubules that form basal bodies.
Centrosomes: A pair of joined centrioles that help with cellular division.
Chloroplast: An organelle that is used in photosynthesis to produce sugar from sunlight.
Became more common in eukaryotes when one protist absorbed a photosynthetic bacteria
(that then became the chloroplast).
Choanoflagellate: Protozoa (type of protist) that are like choanocytes in porifera. They
have a collar of microvilli around a central flagellum. Traps food and consumes it via
Cilia: Short extensions from a cell that can move, serving a variety of purposes (eating,
movement, etc).
Cirrus (pl. cirri): Small thread-like projections coming off the body of an organism. Made
from fused cilia, can allow organism to “walk”.
Contractile vacuole: A vacuole that prevents a protist from exploding due to a hypotonic
environment. It lets water come in naturally, then contracts to expel it.
Crossing over: A process that happens when you have multiple chromosomes during
meiosis, there is a swap of genetic material. This gave eukaryotes a large potential for
Cytoskeleton: A structure made out of microtubules which is then made of tubulin.
Supports the cell.
Diploid: Two sets of chromosomes.
Diplontic: Eukaryotes like humans, where most of the mass is diploid, and haploid only
appears in to make zygotes.
Dynein molecular motor: One of the molecular motors. “Walks” along microtubules,
delivering materials to different parts of the cell. Dynein moves towards the centriole.
Ectoplasm: The outside layer of a cell’s cytoplasm.
Endomembrane system: The smooth and rough Endoplasmic Reticulum, autapomorphies
of eukaryotes.
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