BIO 1140 Lecture Notes - Lecture 5: Gluconeogenesis, Glycolysis, Ketogenesis

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Topic 5 Mitochondria
Biology
Kristen Batten, 8616820
Monday, February 6th, 2017
- Energy Flow in an Ecosystem
o Mitochondria are essential for many physiological functions:
Metabolism
Response to stress
Cell death
Calcium storage
- Studying Structure and Function
o Centrifugation
o Subcellular fractionation
o Differential centrifugation
o Equilibrium density centrifugation
o It has a double membrane
Space b/w the 2 membranes & under the inner membrane
o Cristae: these are folded structures of the inner membrane of mitochondria that
create more space to allow for faster production of energy. They are key to the
process that helps release energy during cellular respiration.
- The Objective of Cellular Respiration Power Fo Up!
o In Fo each c subunit forms an ionic bond with a ; rotation 1/10th per proton
o E ad y ae oile ad liked to F1 uit hee ATP sythesis ous
o the pump is a protein made up of other proteins. There are 10 portions fro the c
unit that is made up of 10 different proteins. It is a mobile unit.
o The a and the b are other proteins and holds transmembrane and the portion
within the membrane. These are status
o The gamma and something else phosphorylate ADP to ATP
o So we need hydrogen to flow through for power of the roader (ADP-ATP)
o The more hydrogen you let through, the more active the F1 is: therefore more
ATP
o You need to build a gradient of hydrogen to power the pump
- Metabolic function of Mitochondria:
o Fatty acid B-oxidation (ATP via PhosOx)
o Krebs (TCA) cycle
o Heme biosynthesis (hemoglobin, cytochromes)
o Steroidogenesis (mevalonate can convert cholesterol)
o Fe/S complex assembly (Complex I and II; metalloproteins, ferredoxins, etc)
o Amino acid metabolism (urea cycle)
o Gluconeogenesis
o Ketogenesis
- Glycolysis:
o Glycolysis depends on the cell removing these 2 end-products
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Document Summary

Energy flow in an ecosystem: mitochondria are essential for many physiological functions: Studying structure and function: centrifugation, subcellular fractionation, differential centrifugation, equilibrium density centrifugation. Space b/w the 2 membranes & under the inner membrane: cristae: these are folded structures of the inner membrane of mitochondria that create more space to allow for faster production of energy. They are key to the process that helps release energy during cellular respiration. The objective of cellular respiration power fo up! There are 10 portions fro the c unit that is made up of 10 different proteins. It is a mobile unit: the a and the b are other proteins and holds transmembrane and the portion within the membrane. Atp: you need to build a gradient of hydrogen to power the pump. Glycolysis: glycolysis depends on the cell removing these 2 end-products, this (cid:449)ill depe(cid:374)ds o(cid:374) the (cid:272)ell(cid:859)s (cid:373)eta(cid:271)oli(cid:272) (cid:396)e(cid:395)ui(cid:396)e(cid:373)e(cid:374)ts, a(cid:374)d o(cid:374) the a(cid:448)aila(cid:271)ility of oxygen.

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