BIO 1140 Lecture Notes - Lecture 1: Plant Cell, Carboxylic Acid, Electron Microscope

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Biology 1140
Introduction to cell biology
Topic 1:
How did life evolve into organisms and cells? (Review from BIO1130 and/or BIO1109)
Where did the first cell come from? Primordial soup, RNAs were likely to be the first pre-
cursor to what we now consider cells because they have the ability to catalyze reactions.
The evolution of life. the likely sequence of events was very small inorganic molecules
turned into slightly more complex organic macromolecules like RNA or RNA like
molecule that eventually gave rise to very basic simple cell like structures and eventually
what we consider prokaryotes and eukaryotes.
What are the different types or classes of organisms?
What is a cell?
It was first used by Robert Hooke, who was the first to use lenses and look at matter, he
created the microscope. He was looking at cork and found that everything was
organised in the same shape and compartment. Small rooms= cellulae = cells. He didn’t
look at living cells but only cell walls.
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What is a cell made of? Define the different features, organelles and explain the
roles/functions for each
In common:
The all hae soe sot of eae hih is ot the sae ut thee’s alas a
barrier.
They all have a cytoplasm within the barrier
Soe hae ulei soe do’t. What ipliatio does ot haig a uleus ipose? The
cell is specialized. DNA inside that compartment. Replication occurs in cytoplasm in cells
that do not have a cytoplasm. Does it make a difference if replication happens inside the
nucleus or in cytoplasm? In cytoplasm it will be more prone to error, also speed at which
DNA is made is affected.
Differences:
Some cells have some way to propel them (ciliated and flagellated cells). Whether they
are able to survive as unicellular or multicellular. Different ways to obtain energy. How
they produce energy is different.
What does this tell us? Basic common characteristics (see above)
Same basic chemistry: whether mouse or elephant they all need sugars, protein, lipids
and nucleic acids. All have means to use and produce energy and produce waste.
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DNA: DNA sequences are different as they need to produce different genes but some
genes are highly conserved in these organisms and this is possible because the basic unit
of the genetic information is the same for all of them they all use the same 4 nucleic
aids to uild DNA the DNA is’t the sae i eah oe ut it’s the sae aooleule,
the seuee is diffeet ut it’s the sae DNA.
Sizes are different: nanometer to meter. Example of meter: some neurons can reach 1
meter in length. However most of them will be nano and micro.
What are the different scales/sizes for cells and organelles?
Mitochondria are same size as most prokaryotes (1-5 um) as they were prokaryotes.
Viruses are smaller than most cells but larger than ribosomes. Ribosomes are bigger
than proteins and lipids as they are made up of proteins.
Their shapes can be fairly simple and common but some cells have very complex shape
the way hey assemble in more complex tissues will allow them to perform specialized
functions. Skin cells vs neuron vs bacteria: the shape of the cell contributes to what
function it can carry out (ciliated and flagellated contribute which environment they will
thrive in).
Explain the theory of the cell and the theory of endosymbiosis can you provide some
examples?
What are the main groups or types of cells and how do they differ?
Understand the different types of microscopy and their requirements for use in cell
biology
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Document Summary

Topic 1: how did life evolve into organisms and cells? (review from bio1130 and/or bio1109) Primordial soup, rnas were likely to be the first pre- cursor to what we now consider cells because they have the ability to catalyze reactions. It was first used by robert hooke, who was the first to use lenses and look at matter, he created the microscope. He was looking at cork and found that everything was organised in the same shape and compartment. He didn"t look at living cells but only cell walls. Define the different features, organelles and explain the roles/functions for each. The(cid:455) all ha(cid:448)e so(cid:373)e so(cid:396)t of (cid:373)e(cid:373)(cid:271)(cid:396)a(cid:374)e (cid:449)hi(cid:272)h is (cid:374)ot the sa(cid:373)e (cid:271)ut the(cid:396)e"s al(cid:449)a(cid:455)s a barrier. They all have a cytoplasm within the barrier. Replication occurs in cytoplasm in cells that do not have a cytoplasm. In cytoplasm it will be more prone to error, also speed at which.

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