BIO 1140 Lecture Notes - Lecture 11: Sphingolipid, Cholesterol, Cell Surface Receptor

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Mon, February 22 - Lecture 11 Signal transduction part 1
Slide 6
6 classes of chemical messengers, sorted by structure
Slide 7
steroids enter the cell and affect transcription factors (can turn genes off as well as on). 3 classes
of steroids. Glucocorticoids, mineralocorticoids, sex hormones *be able to recognize a steroid,
recognize the rings
Slide 8
Eicosanoids are lipid hormones.
Slide 9
Peptides/protein depending on folding, they can be active or inactive, and they do not readily
cross the membrane. Enzymes are packaged with inactive proteins in vesicles.
Slide 10
Amines have recognizable NH2 group, very useful as neurotransmitters, all are hydrophilic
except thyroid hormones. Looking for intracellular receptors (just like steroids).
Slide 11
Purines (caffeine, chocolate), important in neuronal signalling
Slide 12
gases can readily diffuse out of cells, can act on target cells nearby. Can communicate through
direct or indirect pathways.
Slide 13
electrochemical gradients across the neutron is what allows them to communicate *not electrical
Slide 14
paracrine signals=local pathway
Slide 14
endocrine signals through the bloodstream
Slide 14
The nature of the chemical molecules is going to determine the path that it can use. (I.e. a
complex molecule can't use gap junctions, a very lipophilic molecule can't use endocrine
pathway/bloodstream because it is very hydrophilic, must piggyback on something (like protein)
for transport)
Slide 15
1. Purine - 2 rings, nitrogens
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