BIO 1140 Lecture Notes - Lecture 1: Peptide, Electron Microscope, Archaea

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What is a cell?
Robert Hooke first to tinker with lenses etc., coined the term microscope
- Looked at cork; made up of similar little compartments, that make up the object
- Cellulae = cells (not living cells obviously, but the remains of cells saw the cell
walls)
- Lay the groundwork for what would become the cell theory (in hundreds of years)
After 200 years of observations and gathering data, we have a way of classifying every living
organism into a tree, in the discipline of biology.
What lead to this?
Better observation techniques help contribute to this knowledge.
Build on other peoples discoveries must communicate findings to other scientists
Discussion - are viruses life forms?
they can’t replicate on their own, they can’t metabolize without a host
according to cell theory, we can say that viruses are not a life form (they do not have a cell )
Cell Theory mid 1800s
All organisms are composed of one or more cells
The cell is the basic structural and functional unit of all living organisms
Cells arise only from division of pre-existing cells
If all cells arise only from pre-existing cells, how did the first cell come to be?
RNAs have the ability to catalyze reactions (something DNA cannot do as well), so RNAs are
thought to be the origin of the very first cell. Possible sequence of events: small inorganic
molecules turned in to organic macromolecules, that gave rise to very basic cell-like structures,
eventually prokaryotes and eukaryotes.
What do all 7 types of cells have in common? Differences?
Similarities:
They all are enclosed have walls as a barrier and to differentiate inside vs. outside
They all have cytoplasm something to fill in the space
Wide range of components/cellular features
They all have the same basic chemistry
They all have a metabolism, mechanism to get rid of waste (even if not the same)
DNA
Differences:
Not all of them have nuclei having a nucleus means that the cell is specialized, contains
DNA in that compartment; replication is different in cells with nucleus vs. without, speed
at which things happen with DNA will also be different
- Prokaryote or eukaryotes depending on nucleus or not
Some have cilia or flagella, others do not have these
Some can survive as a unicellular organism, some cannot
How they produce ATP is different in each (algae being photosynthetic, for example)
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