BIO 1140 Lecture Notes - Lecture 3: Prometaphase, Mitosis, Telophase

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Lab #4: Mitosis
Notes for PreLab Quiz
In eukaryotes there are two types of cell division:
1) Mitosis: cell division that will give rise to two daughter cells identical to the
original mother cell.
Designates the process where genetic material is evenly separated
in two
2) Meiosis: Cell division that will produce gametes
Cell produced are different from the original cell and contain
different genetic content
Cells used for sexual reproduction
Cell Cycle
Series of events a eukaryotic cell goes through
May last a few minutes or hours in actively dividing cells
CellCycle=M Phase
(
Mitosis+Cytokinesis
)
+Interphase
Interphase is the phase separating two cell divisions, where cells enter a period of
growth and potentially prep to the next M phase
oFurther divided into sub-stages:
I. G1 stage is a period of growth and active synthesis of all
groups of macromolecules (including RNAs and proteins).
Also in this stage, cytoplasmic organelles are duplicated.
This sub-stage may last from as little to 0.5 hours to months
or even years
II. S phase: precise replication of all DNA and synthesis of
DNA associated proteins (such as histones in eukaryotic
cells) or microtubules-associated proteins (such as the
centrioles in animal cells). At the end of this phase, each
duplicated chromosome consists of two chromatids joined
together by protein complexes called cohesins. The
cohesions are tighter in the centromere region where the
duplicated chromosome looks narrower. Once this phase
stops, the subsequent stages will follow with out delay
III. G2 stage: involves protein synthesis and production of
structures needed for mitosis.
- Cells which stop their cycle during interphase, most
of the higher plants and animals stop in G1
- Other leave the cycle entirely and enter a stage of
G0
Mitosis
After M Phase, both daughter cells are identical to each other and to the parental
cell
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