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Bio 1130 - Biology biologists and biosciences

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University of Ottawa
Jon Houseman

BIO1130 - Biology Biologists and Biosciences Keywords Artificial Selection ( Charles Darwin)  Selective breeding of animals or plants to ensure that certain traits are apparent at higher frequency in next generations Ages of Sand  Douglas Adams wrote about the fourAges of Sand 1) Telescope 2)Microscope 3) Computer chip 4)Fibre Optics  Silica sand is melted to make glass, which is used in the above four terms Analogy  Anatomical structures of UNRELATED organisms which function similarly but don't share common ancestor  The structures/traits at first were different but than later evolved to preform the same function ( similar living conditions) Binomen or Binomial nomenclature  Aname having two parts  Ascientific name with a rank of species , with two terms: a generic name and a specific name Biogeography  Buffon's major contributions/ideas  He observed that in different parts of the world (even though they had similar conditions) they were inhibited by distinct kinds of plants and animals, organisms change based on environment  Climate and species are prone to change Catastrophe theory  Cuvier's theory  The theory that earth has been affected by sudden, violent events that were worldwide in scope  Major changes in organisms on earth are the result of the catastrophes rather than evolutionary processes Cell theory  19 century ( Schleiden and Schwann)  The basic makeup of all organisms is the cell (living)  All new cells must come from other living cells ( therefore, cells must divide)  Can exist alone as an organism or with millions of cells ( diff roles) Chronological prediction  Not based on facts, not usually from data, no basis  The predictions that are usually known in the media, known to the public, ex: horoscopes, fortunetelling events Common ancestry (Charles Darwin)  Organisms are all related in some way, and even though the species change and evolve, they still have a common ancestor  Evidence for common ancestor includes: 1) Similar anatomy 2) Competitive embryology (similar early embryo) 3) Vestigial structures (not used anymore) 4) Biogeography 5) Molecules Constancy of species (Charles Darwin)  There is no constancy of species ( diversity within species), they have changed over time  Extinctions, new life forms as seen in fossils, transitional forms are proof that species DO change Control  In experiments, must have a control  Is the factor that is not manipulated in experiment Convergent evolution  The evolution of similar adaptions is distantly related to organisms that occupy similar environments  Organisms evolve structures that have similar (analogous) structures or functions in spite of their evolutionary ancestors being very dissimilar or unrelated  Ex: bats, birds, insects: all have wings to fly, but they evolved independently of each other Cuvier, Georges (1769-1832)  Was a french zoologist who determined that the layers of fossils represented organisms that had lived in the past  Cuvier and other followers developed the theory of Catastrophic/Extinction theory  They determined that different species came along and recolonized the area, and when another catastrophe struck, they formed a different set of fossils in the next higher layer of the previous one. Darwin ,Charles (1809-1882) th  19 century  Changed the view of evolution  Survival of the fittest: certain individuals are more likely to survive than others b/c of favourable traits, that will be passed down on to offspring = evolution by natural selection  The offspring with favourable traits for the environment will survive, others will die off  He had no idea of how variation came about or how it was passed from one generation to the next Darwin, Erasmus th  18 century  Wrote poem: “ Temple of Nature”- says there is a relationship b/w things in Scala Naturae  All organisms did not come at once ( they are related)  Translated Linneaus' work to English Deduction  From general to specific  For physical science (not Natural)  Make general assumption, then fit it to everything else ( Ex: Incest have wings, Beetle is incest, therefore, has wings) Descent with Modification ( Charles Darwin)  AKABiological Evolution  Evolutionary alterations/changes of ancestral species  Descendants have been modified- have taken certain traits from their ancestors which provided an advantage in procreation  The passing of selected traits to offspring, Ex: birds with stronger beaks break ore nuts easier, eat more, and are stronger, so they procreate more, more birds in the population will now have stronger beaks, b/c the strong beak bird had more offspring’s. Therefore the descendents have been modified, so they changed to have stronger beaks Divergent evolution  The accumulation of differences between groups which can lead to the formation of new species  Usually a result of individuals from the same species adapting to different environments, leading to natural selection defining the success of specific mutations  Two or more biological characteristics have a common evolutionary origin but have diverged over time Domain  The highest taxonomic category ( above Kingdom)  The three domains areArchaea (Monera Kingdom), Bacteria (Monera Kingdom), and Eukarya  Domain was added later  Based on Ribosomes Empirical observation  For physical science- uses math  Information that is collected by observation, experience, or experiments  You observe, use the data, use formulas and it works- gives you what you expected based on observations and hypothesis. Essentialism  400-450 BC  There is an essence in every organism that makes it that unique organism  The essence cannot change and therefore, the organism's position in the Chain of Being cannot change  The Scala Naturae is fixed- no changes  Their differences = due to their special essence (Plato) Eukayotes  Nuclear material is organized in membrane-bond nucleus  Including animals, plants and fungi (and protists)  Cells are organized into complex structures enclosed within membranes Evolutionary tree  Branching --> evolutionary relationships --> Common ancestor Extinction (Cuvier) th  18 century  Found fossils of organisms that he had never seen on Earth ( no longer exist on Earth)  These organisms (Ex: Irish Elk) must have gone extinct with the major catastrophes on Earth ( got rid of animals that don't exist now) Fact  When more and more evidence supports a theory, it may become a fact  Evidence + Theory Fitness  Success of an organism at passing on its genes  The more likely that an individual can survive and live longer to reproduce, the higher is the fitness Fossil Record  The fossilized artifacts and their placement within the earth's rock strata  Provides info about evolution on earth (species that have lived during a specific geological period and than evolved in time)  Cuvier (new organisms) and Lyell (Strata) found and studied a lot of fossils Germ Theory  1900s  Germ Theory- worked on fungi, molds,bacteria, disease  came up with pasteurization to keep food from growing mold Historical narrative  For biology/Natural science  Study all facts relating to the problem, infer all sorts of consequences from the reconstructed factors, and than try to explain the observed facts  Important to discover factors that contributed to later events in history Homology  Any similarity between traits of organisms that is due to their shared ancestry  Two anatomical structures or behavioural traits within different organisms that came from their common ancestor  Not necessarily used for same function as ancestor or each other but similar structure ( could be vestigial now) Homoplasy  Structures of UNRELATED organisms which function similarly but do not share common ancestor  The structures or traits came about separately and than later evolved to preform the same function (similar living conditions)  Looking for homoplasic organisms do not have common ancestor Huxley (Julian)  Made connection between Mendel and Darwin's theories  Realized that heritable material is what is passed on to give life to new organisms  Synthetic theory of Evolution – genetics and natural selection (filled gaps) Hypothesis  Explanation for facts/phenomena that can be tested or answered by investigation/experiment  Little tests which can lead up to a theory Induction  For natural science  Specific to general  Biologist would
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