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Darwinian.docx

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School
University of Ottawa
Department
Biology
Course
BIO1130
Professor
Don't Know
Semester
Fall

Description
Darwinian 09/09/2013 Natural theology: Belief that knowledge of God may be acquired through the study of natural phenomena Rock Cycle: Magma is root Rises to surface and erodes Forms sedimentary Or metamorphic with magma Sir Francis Bacon Established importance of observation, experimentation and inductive reasoning George­Louis Leclerc (le comte de Buffon) Puzzled by existence of body parts with no function Feet of pigs have toes that never touch ground Proposed that some animals must have changed since their creation Suggested vestigial structures (useless parts) must have used to function in past Charles Lyell Wrote principles of geology Popularized james huttons concepts of uniformitarianism Stratigraphy Stated that rock layers could be categorized according to the number and proportion of marine sheels  encased iwthin Divided up periods (tertiary became Pliocene, Miocene, and Eocene)  Called primary secondary and tertiary Paleozoic Mesozoic and cenozoic Stated world is over 300 million years old George Cuvier French zoologist Layers of fossils represented organisms that had lived at successive times in past Abrupt changes between geologic strata marked dramtic shifts in ancient environments Theory of catastrophism Erasmus Darwin Translated Carl Linaeus’ work into English Zoonomia Book written that deals with pathology, anatomy, psychology, and functioning of body Temple of nature Focused on his view of evolution Jean Baptiste de Lamarck Proposed first comprehensive theory of evolution Perfecting principle Better suited animals to their environments  Principle of use and disuse explains body parts grow in proportion to how much they are used Inheritance of acquired characteristics Changes that animals acquire are inherited by their offspring 4 important contributions proposed all species change through time recognized that changes are passed on suggested that organisms change in response to environment (transformation) hypothesized existence of specific mechanisms that caused evolutionary change James Hutton argued that slow and continuous physical processes produced earths geologic features gradualism earth changed slowly over history contrast to catastrophism wrote book principles of geology uniformitarianism geologic process that made earth are the same as the processes that occur today Louis Pasteur: Life did not come out of spontaneous generation Life came from other life Germ theory Tiny microorganisms lead to disease Charles Darwin 1831 set sail on HMS beagle to south aerica collected plants and animals in brazil and fossils in Patagonia observed patterns in distributions of species on the Galapagos islands noted that animals on different islands varied slightly in form which raised questions artificial selection selective breeding of animals to ensure that certain desirable traits appear at a higher frequency in  offspring began to believe that selective breeding could occur naturally questioned if certain traits allowed better reproductively and survival natural selection was created five theories no constancy of species fossils very difficult to find fossils rain of sediment between batches of fossils shale when fossils split open, soft bodied invertebrates found extinction transitional forms evolution of horse lengthening of limb 
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