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History of Biology.docx

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Department
Biology
Course
BIO1130
Professor
Don't Know
Semester
Fall

Description
History of Biology1 09/06/2013 Original definition of biology: Various forms of life, conditions and laws controlling existence and the causes by which this is affected. Predarwinian and natural sciences 450 BCE=45­ CE: greek and roman ages 450 – 16h century medieval ages scala naturae essentialism special creation pattern  species don’t change earth species created on oct 23 4004 bce not old process designer of some sort 16 ­18  century: renaissance and the scientific revolution douglas adams (52­2001) first agies of sand first  telescope (1608) second Microscope (1678) Third Computer Chip (1961) Fourth Fiber Optics (1980’s) Darwin and evolutionary thought Late 1800s­ id 1900s Modern thought of evolution an dore ( mid 1900s to present) 400  BCE­450: Greek and Roman ages Hippocrates Communication mechanism for medicine Points out that illness is not due to angering God Aristotle Organizational schemes for living world Scala Naturae (ladder of life) Inanimate and animate things in life Naming Classification Taxonomy Aristotle created first taxonomy Types Hierarchical systematics Theophrastus Spent a lot of time organizing plants Disease Organized all medicinal and agricultural plants Student of Aristotle Publishes 10 books on biology of plants Organized into groups Still hold today 9 still exist Medieval ages Europe 400­700 early middle ages (dark ages) 1000­1300 High middle ages 1300­1500 late middle ages Plague (1347­1351) Byzantium and Islamic world  Al­Jahiz(781­869) Animals engage in stuggle for existence Environmental factors influence organisms to change characteristics to ensure survival New species created evolution Al­dinawari Extension of theophastorus Evolution of plants Recognizes plant life cycles Importance of contribution of reproductive parts Writes 6 books that extends our knowledge on body Avicenna Wrote 40 treatises on medicine Heavily dealt in the field of philosophy Aromatherapy  Alhazen Published book on optics and light Set of proper ways to carry out observations on living world Scientific Method 1.Observation 2. Statement of problem 3.Formulation of hypothesis 4.Testing Hyopethesis using experimentation 5.analysis of experimental results 6. Interpretation 7.publication of findings Ibn al­baitar Ways to purify Compendium of 300 purifying extracts Highly potent for healing System of Classification: Carolus Linnaeus  originated the practice of naming and classifying organisms binomial nomenclature modern father of taxonomy developed a taxonomic hierarchy a system of classification based on arranging organisms into ever more inclusive categories Taxonomic Hierarchy Order: group of genera that resemble one another grouped into orders orders grouped into class
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