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BIO1130 - Microbiology1.docx

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MicrobiologyWhat is MicroevolutionAllele frequencies traitswhere variation is occurringEvolutionary changes that result from changes in allele frequencies in a population or in chromosome structure or numbers due to mutation and recombinationLooking at actual source of variation and change within a population of a single speciesPopulationIncludes all the individuals of a single species that live together in the same place and timeGene PoolThe sum of all alleles at all gene loci in all individuals is called the populations gene poolGenotype frequenciesoPercentage of individuals possessing each genotype oEach diploid organism has 2 alleles at each gene locusAllele frequenciesoRelative abundance of different alleles in a population has to follow HW principles if want to calculate itNull hypothesisThe HardyWeinberg principle is a null model because it predicts what they would see if a particular factor had NO effectGenetic EquilibriumoNeither allele frequency or genotype frequency change in successive generationsAllele frequencies and Evolution HardyWeinberg Principle Null HypothesisMeasure of something not happening2 2Rule p 2pqq1AssumptionsNo Natural SelectionoSelection changes allelic frequenciesif one of the alleles is not fit to survive and reproduce gametesallele disappears therefore cause microevolutionoEffect of SelectionDarwin said Change is GRADUALwhat is the mechanismHardyWeinbergs rule probability theoryoFor Heterozygotes favouredIf heterozygotes favouredthe allele frequencies for heterozygotes will prevail in a populationSickle Cell Anemia Model for heterozygote selectionSingle Codon error in haemoglobin causes RBC to take a sickled shapeNot in healthy donut shapedo not absorb enough oxygen respiratory stressoHomozygous for Sickle Cell Real badall RBC are sickledoHeterozygous for Sickle Cell Still not healthypartially sickledHowever will survive malaria diseaseImmune system picks up that the RBCs are damaged and it destroys those sickled RBCsSince immune system can do thispeople who get infected with malaria the plasmodium virus invades the sickle cell as well which is ultimately DESTROYED Cure for malaria maybeAgainst Recessive Heterozygotes will prevailWhen we select against the recessive it will disappear and the frequency of the dominant allele will increaseheterozygotes
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