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Microevolution & Speciation - Key Words.doc

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MICROEVOLUTIONSPECIATIONKEY WORDSAllele oPAIR or series of different forms of a geneoCAN occupy the same location on a particular chromosomecontrol the same characteroTypesPhentoypeexpressed trait Genotypegenetic construction of trait Allele FrequenciesoHow COMMON a certain allelle is in a populationoUse describe GENETIC DIVERSITY Allopatric Speciation Vicariance relates to biogeography oOrigin of 2 or more species resulting from divergent evolution of populations that are geographically isolated from each other oDetailed Organisms ranges are ENTIRELY separate DO NOT occur in ANY one place together Populations PHYSICALLY isolated by extrinsic barrierEvolvereproduce intrinsically in isolation Creates 2 species that are similar BUT one is a CHANGED version of the other Allopolyploidy form of polypoidy omore of than the usual number of chromosomes x2noresults from the interbreeding of different species Autopolypoloidy form of polypoidy oMore than 2 sets of chromosomes x2noDerived from the same specieoResults from redoubling Biological Species taxonomykingdomphylumclassorderfamilygenusspecie NO universal agreement for WHAT it is LIVING animal OR plantEgCanola vs Rapeseed EgHemp vs Marijuana Known Quantities th1315 mi named to date about 110 of total101 error ratio bc othersNOT seen 900 000 insectsBottleneck Effect HardyWeinberg Principlesgenetic driftFORM of gene driftVARIABILITY in genesPopulationDRASTICALLY reduced in sizeDUE TO intense selection pressure OR natural calamity EgTomato Taste EgCrops cant survive wo pesticides Chromosomal MutationCHANGE genetic structure Types InversionoRepair is BACWARDSoUSUALLY do NOT cause abnormalities AS LONG as NO missingextra informationoCAN be placed in FRONT of regulatory regions causes CHANGE in functionoTypes ParacentricDO NOT include centromere BOTH breaks in ONE arm of chromosome PericentricINCLUDE centromere breaks in EACH armTranslocation oRearrangment between parts of NONHOMOLOUS chromosomesoChange where MAJOR regions are exchangedEgLeukemia genesGene Duplication OANY duplication of a region of DNA that contains a GENEoPrimary copyUSEDoSecondary copyFREE from selective pressureNO deleterious effectoMutates FASTER than a functional singlecopy gene bc 2xPolyploidy oX2 sets of paired chromosomesEgPlants GoldfishChromosomal Crossing OverCREATES NEW gene combinations Codes for SAME thing Egmeiosis Diploid 2nNORMAL amount of DNAcell 2 sets of chromosomes OR 2x haploidof chromosomes EgHumans MOST animals Directional SelectionNatural SelectionFAVOURS a SINGLE genotype
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