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Microevolution and speciation Keywords.doc

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Microevolution and SpeciationTermDefinitionKey PointsAlleleOne of two versions of a geneAllele frequenciesThe abundance of one allele relative to others at the same gene locus in individuals of a populationThe evolution of Allopatric SpeciationLarge species gets reproductive isolating divided example by mechanisms between two a riverpopulations that are Populations evolve geographically separatedindependently and diverge into different speciesSpecies later do not interbreedAllopolyploidyThe genetic condition of 2n6 spontaneously having two or more doubles during complete sets of mitosis creating chromosomes from 2n12this instantly different parent speciescreates sets of homologous chromosomes Selffertilization can then generate polyploid individuals that are reproductively isolated from both parent speciesAutopolypoloidyThe genetic condition of A spontaneous having more than two sets doubling of of chromosomes from the chromosomes during same parent speciesmeiosis produces diploid gametes If the plant fertilizes itself a tetraploid zygote will be producedBehavioral isolationA prezygotic reproductive Behavioral signals isolating mechanism in not recognized by which two species do not femalemate because of Example firefliesdifferences in courtship behavior also known as ethological isolationBeneficial MutationBiological speciesGroup of species that can successfully interbreed and produce fertile offspringBottleneck effectA reduced amount of Large population diesvariation in a populationCan be caused by disease starvation droughts etcEven if the population returns to its original size the variation is greatly reducedChromosomal InversionChromosomal translocationCrossing overThe recombination process in meiosis in which chromatids exchange segmentsDeleterious mutationDiploidAn organism or cell with two copies of each type of chromosome in its nucleusDirectional selectionA type of selection in which Shifts a trait away individuals near one end of from the existing the phenotypic spectrum mean and towards have the highest relative the favoured extremefitnessExample the birds that like the long tailsDisruptive selectionA type of natural selection Mean phenotype is in which extreme not favouredphenotypes have higher Both extremes are relative fitness than favouredintermediate phenotypesExample Female
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