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Proterozoic eon.docx

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Proterozoic eonEukaryote originsThe main difference between a eukaryote cell and prokaryote cell is that prokaryote cells lack a nucleus to contain its genetic information a nuclear membraneeukaryotes are generally much larger than prokaryoteshas a much more complex interior generally made up of the endomembrane system nutrient exchange within the cellodirectly related to the supply surface and functionvolume ratioSmall cells have more surface area and less volume easier to supply the cell with nutrientsLarge cells have small surface area but more volume has problems to supply the volume fast enoughThis lead to infolded membranes to increase surface areaFor eukaryotes which are the larger cells it did this with its genetic information creating a nuclear membrane to contain and increase surface area within the cell the nucleusoNucleus surrounded by a nuclear envelope because its invaginated membrane it has an inner and outer component and two bilipid layersoSelectively permeable for transfer of genetic code mRNA and suchRNA processed transcripted in the nucleus than leaves and gets translated by the ribosomes outside the nucleus into proteinsExplains why original transcript from DNA may have altered longer process before being translated must go through nuclear membrane go through procedures etc before being translated into proteinProkaryotes dont have a nucleus and so the process takes less time everything happens in the cytosol cytoplasmThe endomembrane also consists of the smooth and rough endoplasmic reticulumOther important organelle was the mitochondrion the power plant of the celloOriginally eukaryotes relied on anaerobic metabolismoMitochondrion allowed aerobic respirationoAt some point in time a eukaryote cell ate a bacterium but it didnt die instead creating a symbiotic relationship helping each other outThe cell provided 3carbon pyruvate the bacterium provided high energy ATP through electorn carriers like NADHoThis theory is supported by many observationsThe unique DNAMany attributes of a bacteriaoThe mitochondrion has two membranes as well allowing for more surface areaoIts considered a chemoorganoheterotroph uses C molecules to create ATP
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