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PreDarwinian BiologyKey WordsAge of SandConcept from a Douglas Adams SpeechThere are 4 ages of sand sto1 ageTelescope 1608 Sand in the form of glassrepresenting the lenses of a telescope which allowed humankind to observe the universe and the planets of our solar system Birth of astronomy Observations are associated with scientific revolutionEarth is not at the center of the universe Say whaatndo2 age Microscope 1670s Sand in the form of microscopic lensesallowing humankind to observe the tiny formations that make up life Led to a detailed analysis of the cell the basis of all living things rdo3 age Silica based computer chip 1960sproviding humankind with the computational skills necessary to input and analyze data to a greater extent Unanswered questions were getting answered Provides mathematic models of biological systems ecosystem structures and even unravels evolutionary history of organisms tho4 age Fiber optics 1980s Sand in the form of glass in fiber optic cablesallowing the transmission and exposure of huge amounts of data travelling the world at lightning speed Birth of the internet and peer to peer networking allowing scientists to work together on global scale questions and problems AlDinawariFounder of Arabic botany study of plantscreated the Book of plantsResearched and wrote about the biological life histories of 600 plants which enhances the concepts of botany by TheophrastusDescribed plant evolution from birth to death including phases of growth and production of flowers and fruit AlhazenArab physicistconsidered the father of modern opticsConsidered one of the founders of the scientific method which we still use todayHe developed a set of instructions on how to observe and understand the world around applies to both natural and physical scienceso1 Observationo2 Statement of problemo3 Formulation of hypothesiso4 Testing of hypothesis using experimentationo5 Analysis of experimental resultso6 Interpretation of data and formulation of conclusiono7 Publication of findingsAlJahizArabic writer influenced by Aristotle Described physically and behaviourally roughly 350 animalsBook of AnimalsBased on his observations he introduces early concepts of evolution survival of the fittest and the concept of natural selection before Darwin was even bornAnimals who are successful in breeding are capable of passing on successful traits to offspring AristotleMy homieAncient Greek philosopher Observed and dissected plants and animals and understood how each fitted into the grand scheme of nature looked at lists saw trends and tried to organize the living worldCreated the Great Chain of Being the Scala Natura which demonstrated the linear evolution of simple to complex organismsHe ranked organismscomplex organisms were closer to the top aka Godliness Introduced essentialismThe substance or essence makes the object what it is and without that specific essence the object wouldnt existArtificial TaxonomyTaxonomya rule applied toorganize a collection of thingsFirst implemented by AristotleThe ruleProminent and easily observed features are taken to organize the living and nonliving worldTransition from folk transfer of knowledge between generations via physically telling someone to artificial taxonomyrecording it downAvicennaMuslim physician from Byzantium and Islamic WorldWrote the Book of healingAdded medical practice of India to AlDinawaris Book of Plants and the Hippocratic CorpusBuilt ideas off of Hippocrates
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