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KEYWORDS to know

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KEYWORDSWARNING The first three topics do not incorporate much detail and may not be very accurate I only began to really create decent definitions for the Proterozoic Era and onwards Use these notes as a reference only although they are detailed and complete for most terms some terms may have spelling errors repeated or inaccurate information depending on how exhausted I was at the time of creating the notes As a tip you should use my notes as a reference to create your own notes rather than just reviewing these terms Good luck in the course and keep up with the material Biology Biologists and the BiosciencesAges of sand Douglas Adams created the idea of the four ages of sand describing the four stages of technology in our world telescope microscope computer chip and fibre opticsAnalogy involved in evolution an analogy is often referred to as a trait or inheritance in genetics that appears to be similar in two unrelated organisms opposite of homologyBinomen two names for a species general and specific named using system developed by LinnaeusBinomial nomenclature naming system developed by Linnaeus uses two names general and specific to identify an organismBiogeography study of the distribution of plants and animals in different regions of the earth and the factors that influence their distribution for example think of isolated geography study of how continental drift distributed organisms throughout the planet Catastrophe theory the theory that the Earth was hit by a sudden emergence of catastrophic events that could have been worldwide proposed by George CuvierCell theory theory that all living organisms are made up if cells the cell contain all of the components of life within it and can only arise from other developed cells no spontaneous generationChronological predictionto make a guess ChronologicallyCladogram a branching diagram representing different species of organisms used to illustrate phylogenetic relationships show shared characteristics of different organismsCommon ancestry when two or more species share a common ancestor these species would have evolved from the common ancestor perhaps still sharing common traits in their current formsConstancy of species one of Darwins five theories is to disprove the constancy of species claiming that species do change over time we can see transitional forms of species in fossil recordsControl the control of the experiment is the unchanged portion all of the results will be based off of the control usually standard conditions for the experiment absence of experimental manipulationConvergent evolutionorganisms within the same environment that evolve to adapt to that environment similarly yet they are vastly different from one anotherCuvier Georges proposed catastrophe theory first to realize that by putting the bones of an organism together you can see the original organism also first to propose extinctionDarwin Charlesproposed five theories of evolution worked with Wallace but was more wellknown due to his data amassed on the Beagle shipDarwin Erasmusfirst to propose common origin in species translates many of Linnaeuss text to English providing more of the world with the knowledge of his work grandfather to Charles DarwinDeduction general to specific used in physical sciences and believed to be the most scientific way of observationDescent with modification heredity the passing on of a trait to offspring by way of geneticsDivergent evolution structure within an organism become modified over time but still retains an underlying structure diverged and diversifiedDomain a major branch of the evolutionary tree set apart from the rest the highest taxonomic category another term for kingdomEmpirical observation taken from observation during an experiment can be proved using an experimentEssentialism belief that all living organisms contain an essence belief in no change in species major belief in the scala naturae and no change in the hierarchy of the scala only breaks down during Mendel and Darwins proofsEukaryotes organisms in which DNA is enclosed in the nucleus more developed than prokaryotes contain specialized areas and double membranesEvolutionary tree different organisms organized in a branching diagram assumed to have a common ancestor think of the bacteria Archea and Eukarya branching diagram we have been shown in classExtinction a species that has become extinct has completely died out extinction first proposed by Cuvier different organisms that are extinct now can be found in different parts of the world than expected telling us more about the world at that timeFact cannot be disputed reality can be used as concrete evidence for a theoryFitness how many genes do you put into the next generation your progeny used to determine how much of an influence an organisms traits have on its descendants relative ability to survive in their environmentFossil record the inventory of fossils taken from the planet can show evolution over time found in the strata can be used as evidence to support many of the theories extinction evolution biogeographyGerm theory an experiment performed by Pasteur that proved that spontaneous generation could not occur using a contaminated flask and an uncontaminated flask he is able to show that life can only generate from other lifeHistorical narrative the means of passing along information in the nonphysical sciences such as biology not seen as scientific by physical scientists lack of formulas and more storiesHomology shared characteristics of organisms because they descend from the same ancestor opposite of analogous similar characteristics although they are not related Homoplasy a characteristic shared among a species that is not inherited from a common ancestor due to the environment they inhabit related to convergent evolutionHuxley Julian proposed that heritable genes vary in a population and that the frequency of a gene in a population will determine its expression for example a gene for colourblindness will be more likely to express if both parents possess the geneHypothesis used in experimental purposes smaller ideas than what we would occur in a theory usually an educated guess based in the facts and observations made in the experimentInduction specific to general used in biology considered unscientific looks at a specific case and tries to generalize it to apply to all organismsLamarck JeanBaptiste believed in heritable traits but believed in transmutationif you dont use it you lose it happened to be wrong most of the time proposed change due to environmental pressuresLaw applies universally for all organisms cannot be challenged has been proven experimentallyLeclerc GeorgeLouisBuffon referred to as Comte de Buffon proposed theory of biogeography challenged the scala naturaeLinnaean taxonomy classification system of organisms split them up according to their kingdom phylum class order genera family genus and species used to categorize organisms by their characteristics allows us to see relationships between them and other organismsLinnaeus Carolusproposed taxonomic hierarchy and binomial nomenclatureLogical prediction prediction of events based on the facts provided we make a logical prediction based on what is provided to us when performing an experiment
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