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Carboniferous and Permian lecture notes.doc

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Jon Houseman

Carboniferous and Permian Slide 2 as we head into the carboniferous the continental plates are making a big transition plates are starting to amass together in one locationthis amassment creates a linking of landmasses into 1 giant landmass by the endof the Permiancontinents are shifting on the surface and have come back together animals and plants become uniformly distributed across landmass when it islinkedas the landmass pulls apart toward the end of the Permian there is speciationoccurringSlide 5 Carboniferous Aquatic Environment even though there is a mass extinction at the end of the Devonian from the anoxia the chill the decrease in CO2 etc most of the ocean organisms are still there in terms of the phyla ie radula shells cartilaginous skeletons etcmorphologically organisms dont look like their ancestors but there is no major change in the phylum architecturesSlide 6 Carboniferous Terrestrial Environment there are no changes occurring on land end Devonian mass extinction has no effect on terrestrial environment plants are diversifying on landSlide 7 Carboniferous Coal Forestsmany of the plants that survive are massive at this timeno major seed plants plants are using spores at this time and are still successfulthere was no recycling of plant material because they were so successfulplants were fossilized because there was no organism to feed on them or recyclethemduring the Carboniferous there is a large amount of plants and a large amount of carbon dioxide that becomes fixed into plant material and fossilizes itthe carbon cycle of the planet is disrupted at this timecarbon material is being locked in the fossilized plants instead of being recycledand regenerated plants are pulling out CO2 and are pumping out large amounts of oxygen oxygen content of the atmosphere rises above 30 because of the amount ofphotosynthesiscarbon that is broken out of the cycle is now being burned as coal and beingrestored into the atmosphere plants include large club mosses giant horse tails and tree ferns Slide 8 Evolutionary Trend in Plant Lifecyclesplants are improved by the addition of a new type of reproduction gametophyte is becoming internalized into the sporophyte part of the lifecycleoriginally the 2 were equally contributingwhen we first generate seeds the gametophyte is being housed in the sporophyte permanently Slide 9 Phylogeny of Plantsvascular tissue is perfected addition of seed to the lifecycle Slide 10 Evolution of Plant Vascular Tissues tracheids had an internal lignin supported structure secondary cell wall that was attached end to end with pores in betweenfluid can now move in betweenpreviously the surface between cells was not completely open there was a cellulose layer that covers the tracheids now complete openings between cells will develop during this time period a conduit develops from the very bottom of the plant to the tops of the plant Slide 11 Lignin Wall1 Hydrophobic aromatic rings that make up lignin walls are hydrophobicimportant for repelling water throughout the entire secondary cell wallprimary cell wall is wetablelignin creates a nonstick lining from the bottom to the top of the plant this allows liquid to be pulled without resistance within the vessels no chemicalionic interaction between the water and the vessel creates a perfect lining fortransporting liquids 2 Indigestible gives the plant strength plant can resist gravityevery fibre in the plant is rigid and act as reinforcing barsfibres continuously grow and old fibres are replaced but remain intact for structural supportold fibres are not digested but are replaced with new lignin systems
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