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Keywords2_Hadean eon.docx

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Jon Houseman

Keywords for Unit 2: Hadean Eon Adhesion • The interaction of dissimilar molecules in which they are attracted to each other • Water demonstrates this which makes it a good solvent, in fact known as the universal solvent • Adhesion causes the meniscus in water or aqueous solutions as the water adheres to the glass Archaean eon • The second geological eon • Precedes Proterozoic eon and is preceded by Hadean eon • Begins 3.8 billion years ago • Anaerobic bacterial life • Oxygen begins to accumulate Biomonomer • The building blocks of biopolymers • Used to form sugars, nucleic acids and polypeptides • Creation of biomonomers in an experiment such as the miller experiment suggests that it would be possible for life to evolve from non-living matter Biopolymers • Polymers produced by living organisms • Made up of biomonomers • Include sugars, polypeptides and nucleic acids Carbon • The basis of all life on earth • All organic molecules contain carbon as it is highly useful forming four bonds • Extremely common Central dogma of biology • Proteins are responsible for the functional aspects of the living world • DNAis self replicating • Aprotein cannot be used to create DNA Chemical evolution • Atheory as to how life evolved on earth • Life evolved on earth from non-living matter via chemical reactions • Attempts to account for both metabolism and replication Cohesion • The interaction of identical molecules in which they are attracted to one another • Water exhibits this property due to its polar nature • Cohesion is the property of water that allows surface tension Crystal lattice of water • Water forms a crystal lattice when it solidifies which results in it being less dense and expanding in size • The crystal lattice is formed due to its ability to form hydrogen bonds • As the water cools it loses the energy to resist the bonding, which because of its polar nature occurs in a crystal lattice structure Emergence • The emergence of complex things from simple processes or a series of simple processes • More than the sum of the parts • Is fundamental to understanding the genesis of life Evaporation • Occurs in water • Is the process by which a liquid becomes a gas • Requires energy input Geological time scale • Provides a scale by which scientists can classify the different periods in earth’s geological history • Composed of many eras, hadean, archean, proteozoic, phanerozoic • Eras punctuated by major events or changes Green house gases • Gasses which trap radiation in the atmosphere causing an increase in energy on the planet, generally heat • Prevents the planet from cooling rapidly every night • An important part of our atmosphere Hadean eon • The first geological era precedingArchaen eon, building phase, stabilizing phase • Began with the formation of earth 4.6 billion years ago ends 3.8 billion years ago • Formation of solar system and planet, ends with origins of life Hydrogen bond • The bond between the positive and negative ends of two polar compounds • The strongest of the intermolecular bonds • Water forms hydrogen bonds which leads to many of its key properties Hydrophilic • Soluble in water • Hydrophilic compounds are generally polar • In the molecules which make up a bilayer both a hydrophobic and hydrophilic end are necessary Hydrophobic • Insoluble in water • Compounds generally non-polar • In the molecules which make up a bilayer both a hydrophobic and hydrophilic end are necessary Hydrothermal vents • Generally characterized by fissures in the earth’s crust near volcanically active areas • Geothermally heated water generally issues • Theory exists that life originated at these vents, heat energy was converted to energy in protocells and by this mechanism metabolism evolved prior to genetics Interstellar organic compounds • Compounds discovered in areas extra-terrestrial locations which are also created on earth by living organisms • Generally contain carbon, oxygen and hydrogen, but can contain phosphor nitrogen and sulphur • The presence of these provides evidence for panspermia Interstellar space dust Micelles • Very small oil droplets which when agitated appear to dissolve in water • Aqueous core and lipid layer • Precursor to lipid bilayer Miller experiment • Attempted to recreate conditions in “primordial soup” • Was able to create amino acids and building blocks necessary to life • Experiment implied that it was possible for life to have formed from abiotic circumstances N
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