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Proterozoic Keywords.doc

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Jon Houseman

BIO1130- Proterozoic Eon keywords Keyword Definition 9+2 organization Alternation of 1. Life cycle involving alternation of mulitcellular haploid generations stage (gametophyte) with mulitcellular diploid stage (sporophyte). 2. Occurs in most plants and some protists. Ex. Brown algae- In this life cycle, a diploid structure like a sporophyte will undergo meiosis to create spores, these spores undergo mitosis to reproduce, and then they specialize and form gametophytes that make egg and sperm, which fertilize to become diploid Ameboid 1. A crawling-like type of movement where the cell produces (Amoeboid) bulges (pseudopodia) that stick to the substrate and pull the movement cell forward. 2. Only for protists that do not have cells walls 3. The stiff outer core (ectoplasm) wraps around the end of amoeba and squeezes it forward Antibody 1. A blood protein produced in response to and counteracting a specific antigen 2. Antibodies combine chemically with substances that the body recognizes as alien, such as bacteria, viruses, and foreign substances in the blood 3. Vaccines trigger the antibody production Antigen 1. A toxin or other foreign substance (often protein) that stimulates a specific immune response in the body, esp. the production of antibodies which try to attach to antigens to form aggregates 2. It stimulates an immune response in the body either alone or after forming a complex with a larger molecule (as a protein) 3. Are usually proteins found on the surface of viruses 4. It is capable of binding with a product (as an antibody or T cell) of the immune response.* Asexual 1. Reproduction without the fusion of male and female reproduction gametes 2. Genetically identical offspring are produced from a single parent and inherit the genes of that parent only; occurs by many mechanisms, including fission, budding and fragmentation 3. Disadvantage- leads to a lack of genetic variation (this usually occurs when environment is favourable) 4. It is the primary form of reproduction for single-celled organisms such as the archaea, bacteria and protists. Many plants and fungi reproduce asexually as wellBacteria 1. Microscopic, single-celled organisms, spherical, spiral, or rod-shaped and appearing singly or in chains, comprising the Schizomycota (a phylum of the kingdom Monera) 2. Their DNA (usually circular) can be found throughout the cytoplasm rather than within a membrane-bound nucleus. 3. They reproduce by fission or by forming spores. 4. They can practically live everywhere. They can inhabit all kinds of environment, such as in soil, acidic hot springs, radioactive waste, seawater, deep in the Earths crust, in stratosphere, and even in the bodies of other organisms. 5. various species of bacteria are involved in fermentation, infectious diseases, putrefaction (rotting) or nitrogen fixation Bacteriophage 1. a virus that is parasitic (reproduces itself) in bacteria 2. Is any one of a number of viruses that infect specific bacteria, usually causing their disintegration or dissolution They do this by injecting genetic material, which that carry enclosed in an outer protein capsid 3. Are among the most common biological entities on Earth Bovine spongiform encephalopathy Capsid protein 1. Protein shell enclosing viral genome 2. In un-enveloped viruses, they only have capsid
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