• Eukaryotic Cells:
o Atypical eukaryote cell is 10 to 30 microns.
o Alot of membranes present, a key characteristic.
o Inside of the cell is divided up into compartments by a series of
membranes. One of the way these cells become large, by breaking up
interior into compartments.
o Transport systems, can move solutes around, without relying on diffusion,
another reason they can become bigger than prokaryotes.
o Four groups to look at:
The protists, single celled eukaryotes. Such as amoeba and
paramecium.Aprotist has a nucleus and PROKARYOTES DO
Fungi – Yeast, bakers or brewers, commonly used for lab research,
model fungus, grows easily in a lab, small, grows in large vats,
easy to work on, for bread and beer, and although its simple, shows
many characteristics of more complex fungi.
Plants – Arabidopsis, is a plant that is commonly used in research,
small genome, grows easily like growth cabinets in a lab, short
generation time, grows to maturity in a few months.
– Afruit fly is a model organism. Geneticists used them for a long
time.Alot of mutants that are easily distinguished.
– Amouse is a popular choice for biomedical research, relatively
small, happy living in sawdust, eat rodent chow, reproduce quickly,
three months generation time; mammals, basic physiology similar
– Zebra Fish, external fertilizers, and eggs are clear which is a
tremendous advantage, early stages of development take place over
48 hours, only a few centimeters long, reproduce really easily,
have some traits that we are interested in figuring out, their heart
muscle can heal itself, attractable and easy to keep.
• Cytosol is the aqueous solution, and the cytoplasm is the cytosol plus what you
find in it, the ribosomes, etc…
• Cytosol the same in prokaryotes and eukaryotes, but the cytoplasm is
DIFFERENT, prokaryotes lac the organelles.
Non-membrane Bound Organelles
o Found in eukaryotic cells.