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Biology 1140 Lecture Notes.docx

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University of Ottawa
Kathleen Gilmour

• Eukaryotic Cells: o Atypical eukaryote cell is 10 to 30 microns. o Alot of membranes present, a key characteristic. o Inside of the cell is divided up into compartments by a series of membranes. One of the way these cells become large, by breaking up interior into compartments. o Transport systems, can move solutes around, without relying on diffusion, another reason they can become bigger than prokaryotes. o Four groups to look at:  The protists, single celled eukaryotes. Such as amoeba and paramecium.Aprotist has a nucleus and PROKARYOTES DO NOT.  Fungi – Yeast, bakers or brewers, commonly used for lab research, model fungus, grows easily in a lab, small, grows in large vats, easy to work on, for bread and beer, and although its simple, shows many characteristics of more complex fungi.  Plants – Arabidopsis, is a plant that is commonly used in research, small genome, grows easily like growth cabinets in a lab, short generation time, grows to maturity in a few months.  Animals: – Afruit fly is a model organism. Geneticists used them for a long time.Alot of mutants that are easily distinguished. – Amouse is a popular choice for biomedical research, relatively small, happy living in sawdust, eat rodent chow, reproduce quickly, three months generation time; mammals, basic physiology similar to humans. – Zebra Fish, external fertilizers, and eggs are clear which is a tremendous advantage, early stages of development take place over 48 hours, only a few centimeters long, reproduce really easily, have some traits that we are interested in figuring out, their heart muscle can heal itself, attractable and easy to keep. Eukaryotic Cells • Cytosol is the aqueous solution, and the cytoplasm is the cytosol plus what you find in it, the ribosomes, etc… • Cytosol the same in prokaryotes and eukaryotes, but the cytoplasm is DIFFERENT, prokaryotes lac the organelles. Non-membrane Bound Organelles • Cytoskeleton o Found in eukaryotic cells.
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