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the chemistry of life lecture notes.docx

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The Chemistry of LifeCell chemistry is carbon chemistryoC forms the backbone of essentially all molecules of importance to the celloValence4C forms stable bondsBond energy of C single covalent bonds is 70100 kcalmolVisible light 400700 nm4070 kcalmol photonsThe danger of UV lightMost organisms live at temperatures that are very low to stimulate synthesisoMany reactions occurring at the same timeoBiochemistry of the cell is very complexoCarbon is the backbone of most of the cell constituentsoCarbon tend to form covalent bonds that tend to be quite stable and strong readily shares electrons with other atomsoBond energy refers to the energy required to break the bondoUV light can break the stable covalent bonds in macromolecules that hold them togetheroCarbon can form stable covalent bonds with many partnersoA diversity of molecules is possible Linear branched or cyclic C chainsoNote common presence of O N P SFunctional groupsoCellular pH is above 7Cell chemistry is water basedoHO typically composes 7585 of cell 2by weightoPolarity and the formation of hydrogenbonds Bond energy14 kcalmoloProperties as solventHydrophilicPolar moleculesIonsHydrophobic interactions Hydrogen bonds are the attraction of the positive hydrogen ends of one water molecular bondingwith the negative oxygen end of another water moleculeResults in extensive network of relatively weak bondsWater is a very important solventNonpolar hydrophobic molecules tend to disrupt thehydrogen bonding of water and excludes themCell chemistry is hierarchicaloSimple units can then be made into macromolecular Introduction to MacromoleculesCarbohydrates
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