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Lecture 3

Lecture 3-4 Cell Chemistry.doc

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Kathleen Gilmour

BIO 1140 LECTURE 34 The chemistry of lifeCell chemistry happens in an aqueous environment and at relatively low temperatures Cell chemistry is carbon chemistry Carbon forms the backbone of essentially all molecules of importance to the cellCarbon forms 4 stable bonds four valence electrons The bond energy of a single carbon covalent bond is 70100 kcalmol Visible light 400700 nm4070 kcalmol photonsUV light has enough energy to break single and double bonds and is therefore very dangerous to cells and other organismsVery complex molecules are possible with carbon because of the diverse range of bonds that carbon can formFunctional groups oHydroxyl group neutral polar OHoCarbonyl group neutral polar COoSulphhydral group neutral polar SHoCarboxyl group negative charge at cellular pH COOHoPhosphate group negative charge at cellular pH PCell chemistry is water basedoWater typically composes 7585 of cell by weightoPolarity and the formation of hydrogen bonds is because of wateroWater is the universal solvent for the celloHydrophilic likes water will dissolve in water like dissolves like These molecules are not polaroHydrophobic dislikes water are driven together by water because they are not polar and therefore cannot be dissolved in water Eg oil in waterCell chemistry is hierarchical Inorganic precursors turn into small organic molecules which are built into macromolecules which combine to make
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