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Keywords for Bio 2133 This is a compiled list of all the definitions for key terms posted by Dr Montpetit for Genetics from Winter 2010, for all sections.

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University of Ottawa
Colin Montpetit

KEYWORDS FOR BIO 2133I Mendelian AnalysisMendelian analysis It is genetic analysis based on Mendels approach to study inheritance they are based on his four postulates LI slide 6Alleles Alternate forms of a single gene which determines phenotype 45They may be dominant or recessiveGenes Units of inheritance represented by Mendels unit factors 45The fundamental physical unit of hereditary whose existence can be confirmed by allele variants which occupies a specific chromosomal locusA DNA sequence coding for a single polypeptide GlossaryDominant allele An allele that is expressed in the heterozygous conditionRecessive allele An allele that is not expressed in the heterozygous conditionP Parental generation in a monohybrid or dihybrid cross 44 in classical cases they are purebred with contrasting traits to be analyzedF1 filial Offspring of the parental generation will usually be all heterozygousF2 filial Offspring of the F1 filial generationThis is where the phenotypical ratios are shownHomozygous When both alleles are the same for one trait 45Glossary an individual with identical alleles for a gene or genes of interestThese individuals will produce identical gametes with respect to the genes in question and will therefore breed trueHeterozygous When both alleles are different for the one trait 45Glossary an individual with different alleles at one or more lociSuch individuals will produce unlike gametes and therefore will not breed true Hemizygous A trait where the individual possesses one copy of a gene in an otherwise diploid cell found when looking at Xlinked inheritance where an affected malecannot be considered heterozygous 86Chromosome The location of genes and alleles in organisms which during cell division separate independently chromosome theory of inheritanceGlossary in eukaryotes a DNA molecule complexed with RNA and proteins to form a threadlike structure containing genetic info arranged in a linear sequence and visible during mitosis and meiosisGenotype When alleles are written in pairs to represent the two unit factors present in an individual 45Haplotype Glossary a set of alleles from closely linked loci carried by an individual inherited as a unitPhenotype Physical expression of a trait 45Monohybride and Crosses A monohybrid cross is one that mates truebreeding individuals from two parent strands each exhibiting one of the two contrasting forms of the characterstic under study p 4344From website Monohybrid crosses involve a single pair of contrasting traits The original parents are the P generation therefore purebred and their offspring 1are the F generation Offspring arising from selfing selffertilization the F generation are the F generationThe 112F2 generation has ratios 31Dihybrid and Crosses A dihybrid cross is a twofactor cross it analyzes two factors simultaneously 47A dihybrid cross analyzes two strands of purebred parents with each two kinds of contrasting traitsP1 are purebred and the F2 generation that results is 9331This demonstrates Mendels postulate of independent assortmentTrihydrid and Crosses A cross analyzing three pairs of contrasting traitsSimilar to dihybrid and monohybrid in how they are conducted thbut in the end the F2 generation has ratios 279993331 further demonstrating Mendels 4 postulateTest Cross A way to find the genotype of an organismOrganism expressing a dominant phenotype but unknown genotype is crossed with a homozygous recessive individualIf considering one trait a 11 ratio of phenotypes means the individual is heterozygous if all dominant phenotypes then homozygous dominant 4647Backcross Glossary a cross between an F1 heterozygote and one of the P1 parents or an organism with a genotype identical to a parent Self Cross Reproduction by selffertilizationTrue Breeding Strain A strain of individuals homozygote for a certain trait used as a P generation in a crossSum Law The probability of obtaining any single outcome where that outcome can be achieved by two or more events is equal to the sum of the individual probabilities of all such events 5455Product Law When two independent events occur simultaneously the probability of the two outcomes occurring in combination is equal to the product of their individual probabilities of occurrence 48 Conditional Probability The probability of an outcome that is dependent on a specific condition related to that outcomePunnett Square A diagram used to visualize the genotype and phenotype results from cross breeding 46Chisquare analysis 2xsum of observationexpected expectedX Chromosome One of the sex chromosomes larger than the Y chromosomeY Chromosome
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