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Lecture 9

Genetics Lecture 9.docx

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University of Ottawa

Genetics Lecture 9Meoisis nondisjuction and gene llinkage Genetics as an investigative tool oHow can we differentiate between individuals oHow can investigators estimate the probability of matches oWhat concepts and experiemtnal approaches allow us to draw conclusion about the inheritance of genetic traits outcomes determining genotypes and genome manipulationsCharacteristics of gendersoAnatomy Primary and secondary sexual characteristicsgenitalia body hair pelvis etc oPhysiology Function and interaction of the sex organs including concentrations of sex hormones such as estrogen progesterone and testosterone oChromosomes Females possess two X chromosomes in each of their cells whereas males will have an X and Y chromosome Visualize them when prepping for nuclear division Stain them and visualize them easily Perform a karyotype23 pairs the last two chromosomes will show you the sex chromosomesoGenes Specific genes determind whether an embryo will develp as a male or a femaleMeiosis in animals produces gametes with just half of the parents genetic material Mechanism Only one of each pair of homologous chromosomes gets into the gametes Gametes from two parents get to fuse restoring the original number of chromosomes in the fertilized egg zygote Stages of Meiosis oin animals produced 4 haploid cells from 1 diploid cell oAt the end of the first division 2 cells are haploid oSecond division splits the two sister identical DNA chromatids to 1chromatid
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