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Lecture 2

BIO2135 Lecture 2: Form and Function Notes for Midterm 2

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Jon Houseman

Form and Function Notes for Midterm 2: In General Beta Chitin versus Alpha Chitin o Beta sheets: leads to weak H bonds, found in all animals but arthropods, all strands run in the same direction o Alpha sheets: found in arthropods, side chains fit nicely together so lots of H bonding= very strong, strands run opposite in an alternating pattern Annelids Fun Facts: Are a part of the locotrophozoa Includes earthworms, leeches, spoonworms and beardworms Found in freshwater, marine and wet terrestrial environments Setal hairs are formed from beta chitin Predatory on the substrate that surrounds them Autapomorphies: Pair of setae formed from beta chitin on each side of the body Repeating segments on their body= metamerization Coelom Type: Are eucoelomates (their coelom is duplicated and arranged in an end to end sequence) gives it a segmented appearance Ancestral Characteristics and Changes: Ancestrally all metameres had paired metanephridia and a ganglion that was capable of producing gametes and therefore could act as its own organism Symmetry: Bilaterally symmetric each metamere Head is composed of the prostomium, peristomium and pygidium= not actually true segments though Homonomous segments: no difference in the segments down the length of the body Respiration: Gas exchange occurs across the body wall (some species have gills), large ones might have respiratory pigments to increase the oxygen carrying capacity Metabolic Waste: Use diffusion across their epithelium Circulatory System: Closed circulatory system Dorsal vessel pushes blood forward and a ventral vessel moves it towards the back, capillaries connecting the two vessels, blood picks up nutrients in gut wall before being filtered by the metanephridia to recover essential nutrients The dorsal vessel pumps blood towards the front Ventral vessel pumps blood towards the back Feeding: Complete digestive tract Straight tubular gut that runs down the length of the body and is modified in certain regions for different digestive tasks Digestive tract also has openings to the metanephridia where coelomic fluid is collected from the body cavity and is filtered to remove nitrogenous wastes (urea in terrestrial and ammonia in aquatic ones) Controlled by the subpharyngeal ganglion Movement:
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