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Lecture 1

BIO2135 Lecture 1: BIO2135 NOTES FOR FIRST MIDTERM

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Department
Biology
Course
BIO2135
Professor
Jon Houseman
Semester
Winter

Description
In General: Ancestor was thought to sit and wait for food to phagocytise if there was no food the organism would die, then developed cellular creeping in which the microtubules produces by the centriole would extend on one side of the cell and push on the membrane and contract on the other side The formation of the nuclear membrane and endosymbiosis give us the basis for this group Centriole o Produces microtubules that become spindle fibres to move chromosomes apart in mitosis o Program the molecular motors to bring things to the right part of the cell (Dyenin, Kinesin and Myosin) o KinesinDyenin have arms at the top to hold vesicles carrying things and then walk along the microtubules to the different parts of the cell o Myosin: no polarity like the other two, can move anywhere it wants to around the cell Small cells have a large SA:V ratio to supply its nutrients o The larger the cell the smaller the SA:V ratio so the more adaptions there needs to be Nitrogenous wastes are generated in the cells via metabolism o Ammonia: used by animals living in an aqueous environment, highly toxic, the usual end product o Urea: less toxic than ammonia, 2 Nmolecule, need ATP to synthesize, no water to dilute the end product o Uric Acid:4 N molecule, least toxic end product, need ATP to synthesize, used by offspring that develop in a cleidoic egg Flagella beat: 2 types planar and helicoid o Planar: power and recovery stroke in the same plane, full stroke forward for the power and drag on the recovery stroke to minimize backwards motion o Helicoid: flagellum spins in a circle to propel the organism through the water Spiral cleavage: cells divide and when they do the new cells layer in the gap between the cells Radial cleavage: cells divide and when they do the new cells just stack on top of the old cells Protostomy: o Enterocoeley: invagination of the gut and then pinches off at the base and the mesoderm pinches off and divides to fill the space in the middle o Schizocoeley: invagination of the gut and then pinches off at the base but there were already a mass of mesoderm cells that split open and form the cavity between them o Advantages include having a space for organ systems to enlarge or shrink, fluid that can be used for transport, a hydrostatic skeleton (muscles that can contract to change shape) and a gut that can move independently of the body wall Protozoans: Protists
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