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Lecture 8

Lecture 8 - Early Plants (Fern Allies).docx

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University of Ottawa
John Thor Arnason

Lecture 8Early Plants Fern AlliesOctober05121038 PMKEYWORDSEarly land plants evidence explosion sequence ancestry earliest plant foundFern alliesoLand conquest early plants problems and solutionsoCharacteristics2 phyllum vascular tissueLycopodiophyta lycophytes club mosses selaginella lycopodium1Club moss lycopodiaceaeLycophytesPteridophyta true ferns psilotum whisk fern equistitum horsetails1PteridophytaPsilotumHorsetailsGenera dominance radial growth microphylls gametophyte macro microEconomic and environmental issues Earliest Terrestrial Plantsfossil evidence Fern allies appear 440 million years agoMolecular clock evidence fungi and green algae appear 1000 million years ago and fern allies 700Colonization of land by lichens raised osygen photosynthesis allowed Cambrian explosion and lowered carbon dioxide causing glaciation snowball earthGreen algae are ancestors becauseoPigments are similar chlorophyll ab carotenoidsoStarch reserves and cellulose wallsoCharaceae with phragmoplast are more likely ancestor than Fritschiella with phycoplast Evolutionary Sequence of Land PlantsGreen algaelichen liverwortmossesfern alliesconifer allies gymnospermsflowering plants Earliest Plants FoundAncient cryptospore from argentina spore of ancient liverwort 472 million years agoSuggests evolution of land plants liverworts mosses hornwort fern allies Conquest of Land by Early Fern AlliesEarliest major fossil land plants 439 million years ago in silurianUpright and contain conducting tissuesLargely leafless stems with porangia in terminal spikesRhynia Zosterophyllum and Psilophyton are early Devonian fossil forms that belong to 3 extinct phyllaNew characteristics different from algal anacestors ex Antherida and archegonia
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