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Lecture 6

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Proterozoic EonGeological time scale and building heightPhanterozic 543 Ma to present time top 9 floorsrdrdProterozic 2500543Ma 3363 Eukaryotes first appear are singled cell but multi celled organisms come and there are two lineages one plants and one fungi Single cell organisms still live in oceans today and they are Primary ProducersthrdArchanean 38002500 Ma 12 33 thHadean 46003800Ma 012Domains of LifeVery difficult to accomplish and only two lineages do Archaea and Eukarya Evolution of Archaea Bacteria and Eukaryotes the Archaea and Eukarya share important functions meaning that in the evolutionary tree they sit very close The Archaea are not the Panspermia event because they evolved from the Bacteria It is unlikely that LUCA was an Archaea and was probably a EubacteriaArchaea EubacteriaEukaryaCharacteristics described in Eukarya Cell Wall use Cellulose Chitin or none plants use cellulose and fungi use chitin and animals have nonePlasma MembraneLipids in membrane resemble more the lipids in the bacteria membrane and are unbranched with ester linksGene System Not based on operon modelTranscription RNA polymerase very similar to Archaea Nuclear Envelope This defines EukaryotesCircular Chromosomes Not circular comes up with an innovation on multiple lineagesHistones for packing DNA Share with Archaea st1 Amino acid Also same as ArchaeaEukaryotes Autapomorphies 1Endomembrane System2Nuclear envelope Part of the endomembrane system3Multiple chromosomes and diploidy4Centrosomes1Endomembrane SystemNuclear envelope one special case of this systemEndoplasmic ReticulumSmooth Endoplasmic reticulumYou have extra spaces that we can move things around the cell without the use of cytoplasmCreates excellent cell to volume ratioA Origins of Mitochondria Evidence for Endosymbiosisfrom bacterial cellsSTEPSABacteria engulfing other bacteria for foodB Would have dumped enzymes to digest and absorb nutrients but one time didnt and was not destroyedCEngulfed bacteria evolved itself in phosphorylations winner metabolic pathways DWhen inside cell by using energy from cytoplasm 3Carbons to make energy reciprocates with providing the ATP provided with pyruvate to make energyESymbiosis between cells Original bacteria get energy and bacteria that is engulfed gets 3 carbons at easy access Still maintains it bacterial characteristicsCan be trace to only one eventSignificant in Eukaryotes for putting evolutionary tree togetherPassed on through maternal line
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