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BPS 1101 - Antibiotics

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University of Ottawa
Biopharmaceutical sciences
William Ogilvie

Antibiotics - Life expectancy: 1900’s = 44 years; 2004 = 82 years - Back in the day people were sick all the time - Infection could kill you back in the day - Now we die from accident or our bodies give out on us - Plagues were common throughout history mortality rate was 25-50% - Cause of disease was unknown back then - Cures and treatments failed (if you were lucky they were harmless) - Some people thought that they were caused by smells, mask with flowers at end was thought to protect themselves from smell, therefore protecting them from plague - Post-natal infections caused 30% death rate, penicillin made it better - Surgery survival = less than 30% - In WWI and WWII more people died from infection than combat o Died from STD, malaria, influenza or cholera - John Snow disproved Miasma theory (disease carried from bad smell) o Disproved it because he found real source of disease o Cholera came from dirty water not smell o Water pump that caused cholera is now a historical landmark - Agostino Bassi showed microbes caused disease - Atharva-Veda identifies living animals cause disease - Louis Pasteur develops pasteurization o Cool down milk it kills bacteria and help the milk not expire as fast - Lister develops antisepsis (he jumped on Pasteur’s bandwagon that microbes cause disease) - Gram positive (blue), gram negative (pink) - Paul Erlich caused Gram Scan to have dye to find and colour bacteria o This lead to the idea that if dye can target selectively medicine could do the same - Trypanosomes, trypen red dye colours it selectively - Magic bullet (shoot gun anywhere and the bullet will hit target) - Salvarson 606 (successful for treating Syphilis AKA the great pox) - Salv = safe, arson = arsenic - Salvarson 606 could kill muscle tissue if not put straight into vein (not ideal drug) - Erlich wins Nobel Prize (for creating magic bullet idea) - Prontosil only worked in animal (drug metabolised in body) - Once metabolized it becomes Sulfamilamide (side effect skin turns red) - But with sulfanilamide didn’t so they used that instead o Saved a lot of lives in WWII - Sulfa drugs stop bacterial growth so immine system can destroy rest - Stops bacteria from using Coenzyme F and stops bacteria growth - Gerherdt got Nobel Prize - Alexander Flemming found mould that lead to production of penicillin - Mould prevented bacterial growth - Never isolated penicillin just worked with juice mould produced - Flemming used penicillin to purify bacteria (that’s what he thought) - Didn’t do key experiment (just put
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