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Lecture 1

BPS 1101 Lecture Notes - Lecture 1: Diphenhydramine, Chlorphenamine, Insulin

Biopharmaceutical sciences
Course Code
BPS 1101
William Ogilvie

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Drugs 101 Drugs in the Body Part 1:
Drug Metabolized by the Body:
1. Drug enters body
2. Drugs must pass through many body defense barriers that guard the body
a. Stomach; b. Liver; c. Intestine Each barrier removes some quantity of drug
3. Most drugs pass through digestive system in digestive enzyme
4. Most drugs absorbed by small intestine [depends on pH level & solubility)
a) Drugs must dissolve in water
b) Drug must survive digestive enzymes
5. Drugs pass through intestinal cells by lipophilicity [chems dissolve in fat, oil, lipid, & non-polar solvents]
- Drugs pass through one end (water) of cell to other side (blood) =>chem environ inside changes to oily
6. Drug Molecules pass through membrane when passing cell body; [membrane: semi solid oil/water]
- Drugs pass thru 1 extremely chemical environmental to another [water-oil-water/blood]
- Difficult to engineer these specific drugs
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7. Liver removes poisons from food
- Liver chemically metabolize/modifies drug molecule chemical structure to help body eliminate it
Required Factors to make sure Drug Passes Through =>
- Drugs pass many barriers to reach target organ & less drugs reach target
8. Ensure sufficient amount of drugs reach target = Drug interact with biological molecules
- Drugs work by physically touching body molecules at THRESHOLD to produce biological effect
= All biological effects caused by drug molecules touching body molecules
- Drug quantity/amount determine if molecules will stick & nake substance a "DRUG"
- Molecules stick at high concentration; NOT at low concentration
- Small amounts of drug molecules cause no effect & do nothing
- Determine/calculate required dose for target by measuring amount barriers remove
- Minimum dose to make drug stick to biological molecule to cause biological effect => lower BP, cholesterol
- Dose makes drug poison; not chemical substance itself
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