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Lecture 3

BPS1101 Lecture 3: Lecture Three - Drugs 101

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Biopharmaceutical sciences
William Ogilvie

Lecture Three – Drugs 101: Headaches and Colds Headache : o Cephalalgia is another word for a headache – 90% of the population experiences this o Once believed that headaches were caused by demons – loose the demon to lose the headache  Put burning needles to burn demons  Put head into fire – burn head to get demons out  Crack hole in head so demons could escape – hole in head for the rest of your life it doesn’t regenerate. One of the disciples makes a scene in the movie of her cutting a whole in her brain (also known as trepanation)  The brain doesn’t feel the pain o The brain is in capable of feeling pain – small regions of the tissue around the skull is what causes the pain  Understand your headache before treating o 12 types of headache  60 sub-types o Headaches grouped into 2 classes  Muscular  Vascular o Muscular Headache: muscle band around contracts, pressure of contracting muscle pushing against other tissues causes pain  Stress is a huge cause of this – reducing your stress levels will help your headache  Take a pain reliever  Prostaglandin inhibitor is what you want (not acetaminophen – this is for a higher pain tolerance) o Vascular Headache:  3 main types we will worry about: toxic, migraine and cluster o Toxic Headache: get them from a poison – happens all the time due to foods we eat and things we drink, this pain is caused my vasodilation – dilated blood vessels increase the size of the blood vessels around your head and therefore more squeeze on the tissue around them  Hangover is the most common type of toxic headache Why do some people get worse hangovers than others? - part of your metabolism you convert one toxic material into another - Hangovers result from a buildup of acetaldehyde, a toxic compound, in the body. As the body processes alcohol, acetaldehyde is the very Vodka 1 Gin 1 White wine 4 Beer 4.5 Whiskey 4.5 Sherry 4.5 Rum 7.5 Red wine 9 Whisky 10 Cognac 10 - first by-product, and it's estimated to be between 10 and 30 times as toxic as alcohol itself. - Some people are lacking in the 2 enzyme acetaldehyde dehydrogenase and therefor get stuck with all this acetaldehyde they cannot convert to acetic acid - A lot of this is said to be due to genetics – lacking the copies of these enzymes o Aisain flush comes from this due to they are more susceptible to the bad effects of alcohol Aging Can Add to the Pain of the Hangover: - Wine kept in a wooden tub and they cook/burn the wine inside of it to give it more flavour - The amount of fermentation and distillation adds to the darkness - The darker the liquor you are drinking the more likely you are to have a hangover Alcohol increases your liver function - Liver stores vital energy and nutrients, manufactures proteins and enzymes necessary for good health, protects the body from disease, and breaks down (or metabolizes) and helps remove harmful toxins, like alcohol, from the body. - Because the liver is the chief organ responsible for metabolizing alcohol, it is especially vulnerable to alcohol–related injury - Taking medication such as Tylenol for a hangover is not good. Liver will convert it into Cytochrome-p450 and cause damage to you liver Some Red Wines contain histamines: - Histamines: a compound that is released by cells in response to injury and in allergic and inflammatory reactions, causing contraction of smooth muscle and dilation of capillaries. - Due to this red wine causes headaches and it is the same material as sour croute Old Cheese contain Tyramine:  Some people cant break down tyramine and due to this tyramine can get into the blood stream and cause a raise in blood pressure – there for making your blood vessels dilate and cause a head ache Chocolate Bars contained phenylethylamine All of these things have NH2 in common! – and it is a potent VASODILATOR Monosodium glutamate – MSG:  Kikunae Ikeda 1907 o Seaweed was a flavor enhancer (without seaweed bland and with it tasty) Isolated MSG from seaweed and realized that MSG itself was a flavor enhancer especially in regards to meat o Headaches were blamed on MSG and caused Kwok Syndrome (also known as Chinese restaurant syndrome) o It was guessed that if someone ate something with MSG in it they would be sick and without it they would be fine o This made a huge economic impact on millions of restaurants – many people even today still advertise “no MSG”  After research was done on this the conclusion came to the fact that if they didn’t know they were eating MSG they wouldn’t get sick o Most food contains MSG and without it, when making food in large quantities it would be tasteless  The code name for MSG = Hydrolyzed protein and it must be included on the label  MSG is a normal human metabolite - Constitutes approximately 5% of our protein, Produced constantly in the body Caffeine: Vasoconstrictor so if you have a cup of coffee after a night of drinking (causing dilation and therefore a headache) than a swig of that with a pain med will help Brain Freezes: cold sensation gives you a headache, nothing to do with the stomach – tongue pushes cold up against soft palate and the tissue takes that information as the brain is colder than it is supposed to be so quickly vasodilates blood vessels to get blood to brain and heat it up – this vasodilation causes extreme pain/headache for seconds and then goes away when temp is restored Migraine  Most people don’t get migraine –people have a reputation to just say they have a migraine when there headache feels worse than it usually does as well when it comes to buying they put migraine on the label and jack the price up because people tend to buy it thinking “I want this headache to go away faster so im going to buy Migraine meds”  Read the label!!!!!!!!!! There are 2 Stages of Migraines 1) Vasoconstriction: smaller blood vessels and slower flow of blood 2) Vasodilation: where you feel the pain Normally something happens to trigger migraines and once you find out what your triggers are you will be more capable of avoiding the pain Four Basic Phases of a Migraine: 1) Prodrome: mood swings, you get warnings, 30-40% 2) Aura: short, 1-2 hours before a pain phase, headache is coming, the world looks different, prof said he tries to get home asap once this phase happens – you can get hypersensitive, hallucinate, etc. 3) Pain Phase: only feel pain in half of the head, feels like a knife in the eye, can be short or long term, affects entire body, sensitive to light, sound etc. 4) Postdrome: couple hours after, cant focus, you can feel a depression or feel a lot better, hard to catch up to reality Treatment: pain medications and ride it out, lie in a dark room, some people have a prescription Triptan and Migraines: migraine prevention (aura, predrome phases) – this drug prevents the migraine from happening  Comes from the staple grain in Rye and was common in medieval Europe  Rye is susceptible to fugus so that’s where ERGOT came from o Ergot was a poison that caused St Anthony’s fever – this was a huge vasoconstriction that caused the tissues of extremities to not receive proper circulation and due to that people could have to receive amputation o To much – grain green but used in right amount also causes people to have induced muscular contractions during labor and stimulate the body in order to induce labor o Ergot is a strong hallucinogen with induces involuntary muscle movements – therefor back then they used to think you were possessed and therefor they would kill you  Conclusion: St Anthony Fire – too much and therefor amputation, can induce labor, but the hallucinogen back then signed there death warrant Witchcraft:  Have to torture – never a win for these “witches”  Water test: throw them in the river, if they could swim they were the devil but if they couldn’t they were innocent in they would drown so die  Salem Witch Tria
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