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Lecture 2

BPS1101 Lecture 2: Drugs 101 Notes

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University of Ottawa
Biopharmaceutical sciences
William Ogilvie

Drugs 101 Notes  The Internet is a great source to get information if known how to use it properly o Pharmaceutical Websites are very good to use due to the fact that they can get sued and/or have huge legal issues if there wording or they give wrong/misleading information o Government websites (stats can.), University papers as well as scientific journals are good sources to use as well  Science helps us to make informed decisions and gives us a way of seeing the world that will be beneficial to us … in other words science is a way of viewing the world that will be beneficial to us  The human brain has a default mode of “Magic” o We draw conclusions from what we want/our expectations and fantasies o Set only focus on some facts to help us find reasoning/evidence for our conclusions o People need to have more of an open mind and be allowing and accepting to new information  We are convinced we are right o Draw the conclusions you want o Find some facts to fit those conclusions o Avoid testing or challenging your conclusions  This is a survival mechanism o Quick decision making in dangerous situations  This type of thinking slows progress o Does not deal in reality  Science VS Magic  Science o Collect facts o Draw conclusions based on those facts o Test your conclusions in several ways  Magic, superstition o Draw the conclusions you want o Find some facts to fit those conclusions o Avoid testing or challenging your conclusions  Science is a New Concept o Science has only really been around for the past 150 years o All improvements that have happened have been in the past 150 years o Used to live until 35 now we see the life expectancy is about 80+ years!  Life Expectancy o World life span much lower than in Canada, but still almost double that throughout most of human history o in some countries in the world, life span is actually lower than life expectancy in the stone age o Macau (1) life expectancy is about 84.4 years, Canada (8) is around 81.2 years  World average is 66.6 years  The worst life expectancy is in Swaziland where it is 30 years  Life Expectancy History o Approx 30 to 35 years for most of recorded history  Last 6,000 years o Approx 30 to 35 years through the stone age  500,000 to 6000 years ago o 82 years in 2009 (Canada) Most Improvements over the last 150 years  Disease was Common and Dangerous o If you were to cut yourself it’s easy to get an infection it was a huge concern and problem o Living with Lice was a common thing, now you see the occasional situation o People didn’t have vaccines or antibiotics back in the 1800- early 1900 therefor people didn’t live as long because they weren’t protected by these luxuries we have today  Lice in Humans o Head lice are species specific parasites. Lice cannot live without this species specific host. Human lice are parasitic specifically to the human species. o Stick to hair and bite scalp – they didn’t have the treatments we have now and normally resorted to home remedies such as putting mayonnaise on the scalp and such  Life with Worms o Hookworm- parasites, Hookworms affect your lungs and small intestine. Humans contract hookworms through roundworm eggs and larvae found in dirt contaminated by feces. o Tapeworm – parasites, come from drinking contaminated water or from eating certain undercooked meats from infected animals, can lay 1,000,000 eggs per day  Tapeworm eggs… not so much in fish and beef, but more through pork and such - if a pig is infected with a tapeworm, it may pass eggs or segments (proglottids) of the adult tapeworm through its feces into soil. Each segment contains thousands of microscopic tapeworm eggs. These eggs can be ingested via food contaminated with the feces. Once the eggs have been ingested, they develop into larvae, which can migrate out of the intestines and form cysts in other tissues such as the lungs or liver. o Roundworm – most common round worm infection is called Ascariasis, usually consume eggs through water and food and then they begin cycle of turning into worms… max size 50 cm lay 200,000 eggs/day o Pinworms – highly contagious, migrates out of colon and lays eggs in anus – itching… Once the eggs enter your body, they remain in the intestine until they hatch and mature. As adults, the female pinworms move into the colon and exit the body through the anus. Female pinworms lay eggs in the folds of skin around the anus. The presence of these eggs often causes anal itching and irritation.  When a person scratches the affected area, the pinworm eggs transfer to the fingers. The eggs can survive for several hours on your hands. If the infected person touches bedding, clothing, toilet seats, toys, or other household objects, the eggs transfer to these objects. Pinworm eggs can survive on these contaminated surfaces for up to three weeks.  Improved Quality of Life in Canada o 1900 – Average life span was 44 years o Main causes of death  Pneumonia  Tuberculosis  Influenza  (this lasted until 1950’s) o 2004 – Average life span is now 82 years (almost double) o Main causes of death  Heart disease  Cancer  Stroke  Lower respiratory infection  Traffic accidents  Diabetes o causes of death have shifted from infectious disease to “wear and tear” - historically people lived entire lives in an unhealthy state by living as constantly sick (parasites) o this condition still exists in many developing countries  Main Reasons for Improved Health 1) Improved Sanitation a. Used to have outhouses and chamber pots (keep under the bed for the night and dump in the morning) so we were always surrounded by other people’s feces and fecal matter – as well you breathed it in all night while you were sleeping, not just your own but as well whoever was in the room b. Some environments had open sewers so there was always peoples business wherever you stepped; we now have toilets so we don’t come in contact. c. As well we have cremation and funerals with burial options now – back then they used to put them in the road for pick up (most people died at home so the family was responsible for dealing with the body where now we have hospitals that can do that for us) 2) Safe Water Supply a. Drinking water from nature we found is not as safe as it may appear, many parasites (Guinea Worm – grows inside you and exits through skin, highly painful: burns when existing so the person feels the need to run and put water on it, therefor it can exit back into the river) b. We now use chemicals such as chlorine and filters to make sure our water is safe 3) Refrigeration a. New development, used to be common to eat rotten food, you just cut out the worst part and eat the rest b. Seasonal availability – due to most fruits and vegetables not being available in the winter most people wouldn’t get the common necessity’s c. We now don’t have a problem with this, we can get food whenever and wherever and have a balanced diet 4) Vaccinations a. Small pox is now completely eliminated due to vaccines a.i. Smallpox is a serious, contagious, and sometimes fatal infectious disease caused by a variola virus. There is no specific treatment for smallpox disease, and the only prevention is vaccination. The name smallpox is derived from the Latin word for “spotted” and refers to the raised bumps that appear on the face and body of an infected person a.ii.Haven’t vaccinated for small pox since 1972 and people who were will have this large common scar b. Polio is another disease that hasn’t existed in North America since 1991 – nearly eliminated, only seen in 10-11 countries now 5) Antibiotics a. Penicillin reduced maternal mortality – used to kill 900/10,000 women during pregnancy due to some form of infection … if someone was going to give birth they would normally say goodbye to friends and family because they likely wouldn’t survive whereas now people give hugs and say bye as a see you later, very unlikely to die from child birth now Modern Drugs at Work:  Basic Information about New Drugs o Each starts with a scientific idea o Each is optimized using scientific methods o Each is tested scientifically  North American Drug Market o Prescription drugs - $ 300 billion o Over-the-counter (OTC) drugs - $25 billion  World Drug Markets (2009) *** Ask About this o United states consumes nearly half the drugs made whereas Canada is 3.8%  Modern pharmaceutical industry is young o Started in 1856 investigation o Uses scientific methods  Chemistry  Biology  Molecular biology  Epidemiology o Works hard to remove bias o Regulated by government – makes sure that people can’t put up a drug that doesn’t work, or is defective etc. it will come back to bite them in the ass if they do  Most ancient medications were useless o They don’t hurt you but also don’t work – people didn’t want to investigate what makes you sick o “Made-up” cures o People believe in magic o Feel better just by getting treatment o Only a small number of treatments actually worked  A few of these are still used today  Ancient Drugs from Plants o Plants produce poisons which is why people would use them – they interfere with the function of the body just as drugs do (Side note: plants way of protecting themselves against predators is having these poisons) o Want a drug effect but not poisonous one – Drug: desired and beneficial biological effect, whereas Poison: undesired, and unbeneficial biological effect  Drugs are Poisons  Poison – kill  Potion – cure  Only the Dose makes it Poisonous note the thing itself  Dosages o Drug use: 2 every six hours, this will produce a drug effect o But if it says do not take more than 12 in 24 hours and you do it can have a poisonous effect on the body o Poison does not mean only taking a high dose, it can also be taking too low of a dose  Example: a diabetic taking too little insulin  Or although water is good for us, drinking too much can cause water suffocation in some cases  Always ask how much every day in all life situations How were Drugs Discovered?  Two Basic Methods for how drugs were discovered 1) Observation a. Rare, someone eats or drinks something that someone thinks would help them and they observe the effects the drugs had on them 2) Philosophical and Logical a. Based on Belief  Drugs from Observation o Strong poisons (common)  Easily identified  Low dose makes it into a drug  Opium, digitalis, nicotine, cocaine o Weak poisons (uncommon)  Large quantity for effect  Caffeine, salicin o Papyrus Ebers  Egyptian medial document 1500 BC  Example: Clothing: may be protected from mice and rats by applying cat's fat.  Scroll about 20 meters long  Thousands of medical treatments  Most useless  A few are still used today (pulling out a Guinea worm) o Identification of opium for pain  Opium (extracted from poppy seeds)  Narcotic painkiller  Sedative  Toxic in high doses  Drug in low doses Remember/Side Note: Analgesic is used to reduce pain, and Anesthetic is to reduce sensation (ex; freezing done at the dentist)
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