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Drugs 101.docx

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University of Ottawa
Biopharmaceutical sciences
William Ogilvie

- Philosophy: people arrived at cures through reasoning  Healing often connected with superstition, magic and/or religion.  Was often harmful since people reasoned too far away from actual problem. No scientific basis. - Plato believed both diseases and their answers came from God. Aristotle believed that the cures could actually be found on Earth. Both assumed a religious component. Both pretty much sucked, unlike: • Hippocrates (460-370 BC) - Considered the Father of medicine  Promoted experimental methods, not just reasoning - Believed that both problems and their cures were Earthly  Rejected superstition and religion from healing. - Used cures such as Ox liver (contains vitamin A) and poppy juice (contains opium). • Doctrine of Humors - Developed by Hippocrates - Stated that the body was made of 4 humors, which he then associated with the “4 elements”, as well as their physical symptoms (and personalities) - Earthdryblack bile  melancholic - Air cold  blood  sanguine - Fire  hot  yellow bile  choleric - Water  wet  phlegm  phlegmatic - Stated that the 4 humors are normally in balance, but that occasional rises/falls of a humor cause disease - Cure was to rebalance the humors  Diagnosed using the properties of the humors  Ex: Fever associated with hot and dry, so cure using cold and wet  Blood-letting was often used, and still practiced up to 150 years ago.
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